SUSTAINABILITY DETERMINANTS IN THE IBERIAN WINE INDUSTRY

The objective of this study is to determine the factors that explain the orientation, of the wine industry and at firm level in Portugal and Spain for adopting policies to improve sustainability, identifying similarities and differences between the two countries. The study focuses on two countries that account for a relevant part of the global vineyard surface area, wine production and wine exports. The database for the empirical analysis has been constructed through a survey conducted among wineries of the two countries during 2020 and 2021, for which a total of 568 valid responses were obtained. From the quantitative analysis, based on three Box-Cox left-hand-side models, it can be concluded that those wineries that invest the most in their growth and anticipate future challenges are more inclined towards adopting sustainability policies. The study also reveals notable differences between the two countries as the determinants that drive sustainability are more varied in the Spanish wineries than in those of Portugal.

La sécurité alimentaire au Nord Cameroun: une approche d’analyse quantitative

Food security assessment is complex and its multidimensional nature does not make it easy to quantify. In Cameroon, the persistence of food insecurity despite the efforts made is more worrying and its measurement constitutes an obstacle. The objective of this work was to build a proxy representative of the food situation within households. Clearly, the aim was to propose a method for estimating an aggregate proxy for food security at household level (IASA) and to analyze the determinants that result from it. Using a principal component aggregation approach, the IASA was estimated following a standardization process. The Tobit model has identified the factors that influence food security. The results revealed that the approach to estimating the IASA based on all of the components of the PCA is likely to provide a relevant proxy and more representative of the food situation than does one based exclusively on a single component. The social anchoring of the household, the workforce, the diversification of agricultural and pastoral activities and especially the agropastoral income are the main predictors of food security, while the level of vulnerability, the marital status (widower) and land conflict are the risk factors that degrade food well-being. The actors involved in the fight against food insecurity should consider the multidimensional aspect by integrating in the proxy estimate all the main components resulting from the PCA extraction, so that it accurately reflects the food situation.

Evolution of global grain trade network and supply risk assessment based on complex network

The global distribution of grain resources is uneven, and this paper analyzes the evolution of the global trade network of wheat, corn and rice from 2012 to 2021, based on the complex network . At the same time, a global grain trade supply risk assessment index system was established to assess the supply risk of the main import trade countries of wheat, corn and rice in 2021, and the following conclusions were obtained. The trade relationships of corn was the most dense, and the trade connectivity between countries was the highest, while the trade group differentiation of rice was the highest, and the trade group characteristics were more prominent. Canada, America, Australia, Russia, Argentina, Ukraine, Brazil, India and China were the major grain export countries. Italy, America, France, Germany, the Netherlands and South Africa occupied the important positions in the global grain trade network. The supply risk of wheat trade gradually increased with the import volume from high to low. The supply risk of rice was higher than that of wheat and corn as a whole, and the high risk was mainly concentrated in countries with high import trade.

Tracking on food and agriculture-related SDG indicators in the Mediterranean region

The Mediterranean region is facing important socioeconomic, demographic, environmental and geopolitical dynamics, leading to a continuous rise in food requirements. These interlinked challenges are embodied in the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development, adopted by all UN member states in 2015 and built around 17 Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs). The aim of the study is to classify countries of the Mediterranean region, based on their agriculture and food related SDGs progress, in order to understand the key implementation strategies, define the gaps between countries and identify priorities for action. To classify countries, a cluster analysis based on Euclidean distance is used, followed by the ANOVA. The analysis shows that the level of food security is a discriminating factor for the clustering of countries: a clear gap emerges between the countries of Western Europe and those of the MENA area. The transition towards more sustainable food production and consumption models has also reached different stages in the various countries of the area, representing a further element of distance.

Competencies of Western Balkan farmers for participating in short food supply chains: honey case study

The paper aims to examine the impact of different beekeepers’ characteristics on their perceptions of two personal competencies required for successful participation in short food supply chains (abbr. SFSCs): (1) Communication and marketing knowledge and skills, and (2) Available time to cultivate communication with customers and sell honey. Data was collected using survey research, and the total sample included 1,081 beekeepers in the region of the Western Balkans. Multinomial logistic regression was used for data processing. According to the Nagelkerke R2 the model explained a high percentage of the variance of both analyzed dependent variables. The results indicate that beekeepers perceive both competencies as strong to medium strong. The first competency is more likely to be evaluated as strong to very strong by young beekeepers and those who perceive distance to consumers as a small or no barrier to honey sale. The strongest predictor for the second competency is family labour. The value Exp(B) shows that beekeepers with abundant family labour are 19.1 times more likely to perceive available time as a strong to very strong competency in direct sales.

Covid 19, Taxes Trump et Brexit: Comparaison des effets sur les exportations françaises de vin entre vignerons indépendants et coopératives vinicoles

In this paper, we aim at assessing the effects of the 2019-2020 context (Covid 19, Brexit, Trump Taxes) on exporting activities of wine companies, relying on a survey carried out on French exporting wine companies. The aim is also to observe possible different effect on independent wineries and cooperatives. On a theoretical level, we adopt the institutional approach often mobilized in the field of international management which we will complete with recent work on the effects of disturbances in the institutional context and crisis management. Five main results have been obtained: (1) effects that were generally mastered by both independent wineries and cooperatives; (2) additional pressure on exports from the domestic market; (3): contrasting effects of changes in the institutional environment, with marked importance for disruptions due to the health crisis; (4) significant and differentiated adaptations of companies, and finally, (5) a distinct resilience according to territorial anchoring and export strategies with marked differences between independent wineries and cooperatives.

Evaluation économique des services écosystémiques et du coût de non action en Tunisie : Cas du bassin versant O.Lachbal

The present study is inspired by a current scientific debate around the economic valuation of soil ecosystem services. It details the estimation of the services identified in the watershed O.Lachbal and develops projections in order to analyse the total economic value trajectory in the absence and presence of water and soil conservation measures according to the evolution of water erosion, so as to reveal the cost of non-action related to soil degradation. This assessment help to clarify the picture of the benefits provided by each service. The total economic value of ecosystem services is estimated at TND 5.98 million (2022). The majority (60%) of this value is made up of direct use benefits (provisioning services), while indirect use benefits (regulating services [34%] and support services [6%]) constitute only 40% of the total value. The study of the evolution of the aggregate benefits made it possible to estimate the economic impact of combating degradation over 21 years and to identify the cost of non-action associated with soil water erosion. The results of the study show that progressive mitigation of soil water erosion leads to the stabilization of ecosystem functions and subsequent conservation of ES, while the opposite case of this scenario reveals an average cost of non-action 5 times higher than the total economic value of the current year (TND 30 million). In view of this problem, public intervention remains essential, and this study explored a concave relationship between the cost of non-action and the degree of degradation achieved or to be avoided, given that erosion is considered to be a natural phenomenon that can be controlled, but cannot be avoided, offering a decision key in relation to monetary availability.

Evaluation of Knowledge, Attitude and Behavior in Agricultural Pesticide Use of Kiwi Farmers

In this study, it was aimed to evaluate the knowledge, attitudes, and behaviors of producers in pesticides use. The study was conducted in 7 provinces of Türkiye (Yalova, Bursa, Ordu, Rize, Mersin, Samsun and Sakarya) where are significant potential in Türkiye’s kiwi production and these provinces constitute approximately 90% of Türkiye’s total kiwi production in terms of production. According to the findings of study, the average age of the producers was 50.2 and the average of their agricultural activity period was 24.8. The average land size of the producers is 32.4 decares, the average fruit land is 22.9 decares and the average kiwi cultivation area is 14.7 decares. While 60% of the producers stated that they obtained pesticides and fertilizers from agrochemical dealers, 33.7% of them applied spraying when they first observed the disease, 40.1% of the producers stated that they determined the time and pesticide amounts to be used according to their own experiences. It has been determined that approximately 92% of the producers think that the agricultural pesticides used have negative effects on human health. To mitigate the negative effects of agrochemical overuse on both human health and the environment, policy makers and agricultural institutions should prioritize educational campaigns aimed at raising awareness among farmers.

Consumers’ perceptions about probiotic food products and their effects on purchase intention: A case study of Eastern Mediterranean Region of Turkey

The aim of this study is examining consumers’ preferences and behaviors about probiotic foods (PFs) in Turkey, and analysing the relationships between some factors such as consumer perception, knowledge level, income level, and purchase intention. According to the research results, among the PFs, sour milk products such as; cheese, conventional yogurt, and ayran (yogurt drink) were found to be the most frequently consumed probiotics. On the other hand, the consumption level of other common commercial probiotics like probiotic yogurt and supplements were found quite low. It was determined that consumers have a high awareness level of the benefits of PFs and that they consume these products with confidence. According to the analysis results, statistically significant and positive correlations were found between consumers’ knowledge level and consumers’ perceptions of benefit and necessity. In terms of purchase intention, statistically significant and positive correlations were found between “purchase intention” and some variables such as; “knowledge level”, “income level”, perceptions of “benefit” and “price sensitivity”.

Somalia consumers’ camel meat consumption satisfactions under climate change

Global climate change has rapidly changed consumers’attitude and behavior toward food products by affecting significantly their supply and demand. In this context, it was planned to determine the main factors affecting camel meat consumption satisfaction of Somalia consumers under the climate change conditions. The maim material of the research was obtained from 385 households residing in Mogadishu, Somalia in 2022. Exploratory Factor Analysis and Two-step Cluster Analysis were used to explore Somalia consumers’ camel meat consumption satisfaction. The results of the study highlighted that the low and middle-income consumers focused on healthy diet willingness under the hedonic quality attributes mitigating the ecological footprint in livestock on their camel meat consumption satisfaction. On the other hand, it was also analyzed that the high-income segment yielded more importance to their sensory and real quality attributes through the animal care and feeding management strategies adapted to climate change.

Forecasting the dynamics of farm income: the case of the olive sector in Spain

The objectives of this paper are to determine the factors that influence interannual movements of farms between income categories, and to forecast future income categories of farms under several different market, climate, and policy scenarios. To achieve these goals, a methodology combining the Markov chain model with a partial proportional odds model is proposed. Spanish olive farms are taken as an illustrative case study. The results show that the income dynamics of these farms are mainly influenced by off-farm uncontrollable factors such as the output prices, the weather conditions, and the policy support. Moreover, farm-, farmer-, and management-specific factors also play a relevant role.

Costs and Benefits of Sustainability-Oriented Innovation in the Agri-food Industry: A Review

In light of the increasing demand for sustainable development, the agri-food industry is under pressure to make the transition towards sustainability. Innovation has been identified as a key driver for this transformation. However, the agri-food industry, which n many countries is dominated by small and medium-sized enterprises, is highly sensitive to the benefits, costs and potential risks of sustainability-oriented innovation.
At the same time, because of the low propensity of countries in the Mediterranean region to innovate, an in-depth exploration of innovation is necessary. This paper presents a review of the costs and benefits of specific sustainability-oriented innovations, not only economic but also social and environmental, to provide a guide for researchers and adopters of sustainability-oriented innovations in the Mediterranean region. To achieve this goal, this paper classifies the elements being reviewed according to the nature of the innovation and stages of the product life cycle it overs. This paper has implications for farmers, business managers, regulators and policy makers in the Mediterranean region.

Nutritional information as a source of consumer power and psychological empowerment

The aim of this research is to determine the extent to which the use of the Internet and web technologies can enhance consumer power and psychological empowerment.
Based on theories of power and empowerment, a model is proposed to improve the understanding of consumers’ attitudes towards their food choices. The results show that the model tested among 300 Moroccan consumers using the structural equation method PLS explains a positive and direct effect between the use of the Internet and web technologies and the power of consumers in terms of food, and consequently their psychological empowerment in their food decision-making.

Analysing export performance in Spanish agrofood auxiliary companies: the role of eco-innovation

The main objective of this study is to contribute to the existing debate on the link between export activity and eco-innovation, using Spanish agrofood auxiliary companies. For that purpose, a cluster analysis has been carried out and two groups of companies have been identified, that is low and high export performance. The languages spoken in the company, export revenues, export experience, international promotion expenses and positioning strategies are the variables that most contribute to distinguishing these groups. The results also show that the age of the management is a key factor in being more export-oriented, as are the control of inputs through
information and communication technologies, the implementation of environmental innovations, and partnerships with universities and research centres. The main contributions of this study are: firstly, to broaden the sectoral scope of the research, which was previously focused on the industrial sector; secondly, to analyse the factors that can influence strategic decision-making; finally, the results provide information of interest to companies that wish to increase their eco-innovative processes through export orientation.

Assessing the Sustainability of Beekeeping Farms in Turkey: Case of the Aegean Region

The aim of this study is to determine the sustainability level of beekeeping farms in the provinces of Aydın, Izmir, and Muğla in the Aegean region of Turkey. The data were collected through a questionnaire from 149 selected beekeeping farms during 2018-2019. The study utilized Principle Components Analysis (PCA) to identify 19 basic sustainability indicators for beekeeping farms, which were categorized into economic, social, environmental and general sustainability indicators. Subsequently, the Fuzzy Analytic Hierarchy Process (Fuzzy AHP) was employed to determine the weight of each indicator, considering expert opinions. The results showed that the economic sustainability index of beekeeping farms was 0.45, social sustainability was 0.36, environmental sustainability was 0.92, and the overall sustainability was 0.58. The study determined that 14.77% of apiaries in the selected farms were unsustainable, while the sustainability of 38.93% was at risk. The results also showed that transregional migratory beekeeping harmed sustainable beekeeping due to its negative effect on both bee welfare and cost increase.

Crowdfarming. A public-private crowdfunding campaign to finance sustainable local food systems: A case study of short food supply chains in Madrid

Civic crowdfunding (CiC) and matchfunding (MF) are innovative private-public financing tools that can back projects with positive social and environmental characteristics. The purpose of this study is to analyse the potential opportunities and challenges of CiC with MF as a policy tool for local governments to finance placebased food initiatives and promote sustainable local food systems. The Matchfunding Madrid-KmRegión case study comprised three CiC calls in which institutional funds supplemented the money raised by crowdfunding campaigns for innovative short food supply chain projects.
The results highlight the potential of CiC / MF to help local food project promoters to raise financial resources, as well as learn marketing skills and build a social support base around their projects. With the launch of CiC / MF campaigns, local and regional governments can enable innovative local food producers to launch their projects through community commitment. Further CiC/MF campaigns can support the entrepreneurship of agrifood initiatives in the region of Madrid. To do this, there is a need for more research and the dissemination of good practises

Exploring consumers’ beef preferences using a stated method approach: Disentangling differences throughout the value chain

It is increasingly important that the extensive livestock systems become more resilient and market orientated to face current challenges. But this can only be achieved by more interconnected supply chains where consumers’ expectations are understood and the benefits of the production systems are communicated to the final consumer.
This paper focuses on an array of meat attributes and their role in consumers’ preferences, from both consumers’ own perspective and the opinions of other value chain agents. The former was studied with a consumers’ survey and a choice experiment, while the latter was investigated by the Delphi method. The study was carried out in a major beef consuming region in Spain, characterised by the presence of extensive cattle farming systems. Results reveal the existence of a niche market for more differentiated beef, where health qualities and local origin are particularly appealing. The ranking of preferences elicited through the rating-scale and the choice experiment are mostly consistent. We also find a certain degree of divergence between the agents’ valuations, being wider with those placed farther from the consumer, as is the cattle farmer.

Impact of social expeditures on multidimensional poverty in Turkey

Reducing poverty is a critical priority for developing countries. Despite the government allocating approximately 13% of the GDP to social support expenditures, poverty affects around 15% of the population in Turkey. However, there is a need for more research that measures the effects of social expenditures, which is a fundamental tool in the fight against poverty, while also considering the current developments in poverty measurement methods.
This study aims to measure the impact of social support expenditures on poverty in Turkey.
The study compares a multidimensional poverty approach to a one-dimensional approach.
The effects of social support expenditures on households in Turkey were analyzed using econometric methods. The study finds that multidimensional poverty values are approximately 2.5 times higher than one-dimensional values. Government spending was found to have no impact on multidimensional poverty, while private expenditure had a relatively minor impact. The paper concludes by discussing the inefficiency and ineffectiveness of government social expenditures in Turkey.

Food security: the Mediterrean region’s desynchronize agenda

The Mediterranean is the scene of numerous geopolitical tensions which are reflected in the agricultural sector, a highly strategic but at the same time fragile sector.
The paper carries out a review of the geopolitics problems and food system challenges that the Mediterranean regions have to face. It highlights the urgency of action to move towards sustainable and resilient food systems in the Mediterranean area.
Multiple innovations will be needed until the Mediterranean achieves the most suitable conditions for guaranteeing its food security.
The demographic pick will oblige national governments to find solutions able to satisfy the increased food demand and to feed much more people than before.
It is necessary to increase South-North and South- South cooperation as drivers for structural growth, offering increased local opportunities as an alternative to economic migration and countries independent policies.

Determinants of the internationalisation of agrifood firms: The case of olive oil in southern Spain

The aim of this article is to identify the conditions for the internationalisation of olive oil producing firms in southern of Spain (province of Jaén), as this region accounts for 20 percent of total world production. To that end, we propose a model and test it with data from four premium extra virgin olive oil producing firms (two Born Globals and two non-Born Globals), combining a case study approach with Qualitative Comparative Analysis (QCA). The results show that firms must develop dynamic capabilities. To do so, firms must combine resources and capabilities; international market orientation, network orientation and entrepreneurship orientation strategies; and human, relational and technological capital. If this happens within the first three years of their incorporation, they can be Born Globals. These results can be extrapolated to other industries. Finally, this paper offers some policy implications for firms, such as: they should become more involved in facilitating the internationalisation process for olive oil firms, promote the olive culture abroad, facilitate access to foreign markets, publicise the health benefits of extra virgin olive oil (EVOO).

Quantification of production inefficiencies as a cost-savings tool for increasing the viability of traditional olive farms

Just like any other businesspeople, farmers have to take decisions every day that are crucial for the survival of their farms. They often wonder “Is the structure of my farm competitive and sustainable in time? Should I expand its size or modify the management? And if so, by how much? However, in many cases they do not have the necessary information to take good decisions. In this paper, we develop a methodology to estimate the production costs of farms as a means of assessing the impact of several structural inefficiencies. In this way, we show how changes in farm management can reduce costs, so increasing farm sustainability. Results show that significant economies of scale can be achieved in production, and that downtimes, farm fragmentation and dispersion have a substantial effect on production costs and profit margins. Furthermore, through cooperative forms of production and management, traditional farms can become more sustainable, while at the same time fostering rural and territorial development.

Total agricultural productivity in the Mediterranean region using the Malmquist index approach

This study aims to measure the total productivity of agricultural production factors through the calculation of the Malmquist index for six Mediterranean countries during the period 2003-2018. The results indicate that the growth of agricultural productivity in the Mediterranean region during this period by the calculation of the Malmquist index recorded an increase of 13.2%. Much of this productivity growth is driven by technological change rather than a change in technical efficiency or scale. In fact, the technology change increased by 13%, while the technical efficiency change showed a slight increase of 0.2% due to the scale efficiency change of the same percentage. It should be noted that the total productivity of agricultural production factors and the contribution of technical change and scale efficiency have the same trend at the subregional level, but are different at the country level. These results show that the total productivity of agricultural production factors is highly variable between Mediterranean countries and that the overall efficiency gains obtained are largely due to the phenomenon of technological catch-up rather than to gains in scale or efficiency pure.

Social dimension of sustainability: assessment in the agribusiness context

Studies on sustainability of agribusinesses often overlook the social dimension of sustainability. The social pillar is clearly the least studied of the three traditional pillars of sustainability, and the classification and estimation of the indicators used to measure it present some weaknesses. On top of that, some social indicators lack scientific validity while others are most commonly limited to capturing intra-company realities. This paper focuses on addressing this gap by identifying the most mentioned sustainability assessment models on the literature in an agribusiness context, selecting the social indicators across the identified models and classifying those according to their thematic scope. We carry out a literature review resorting to systematic and integrative methodology, aiming at revealing the social indicators that have already been used or tested in sustainability assessments with focus on the agribusiness context. The resulting list of articles is identified according to the systematic criteria enunciated and observing the Prisma protocol. This review is then complemented by a detailed bibliometric analysis of the articles identified, which is deepened with a qualitative and quantitative content analysis using exploratory techniques that allow the visualization of semantic patterns, which may help the identification of indicators with strong relevance to the social sustainability evaluation. As a result, this paper presents information on indicators used for the assessment of Social Sustainability since 1999 to the beginning of 2022, highlighting trends in the themes addressed and changes in focus. By compiling and systematising a comprehensive series of social sustainability indicators, we aim to bring valuable contributions to the future outline of an assessment framework that will incorporate social sustainability dimensions underlying a broader perspective on agribusiness sustainability. Ultimately, this research aims at supporting the sustainable development of the sector from a social perspective.

What Explains Total Factor Productivity in Agriculture: An Empirical Investigation Using Panel Data Analysis

Considering population projections, which are estimated to be 10 billion people in the world by 2050, agricultural demand is expected to rise by about 50% compared to 2013 levels, even under a moderate economic development scenario. The number of people will increase in cities, and higher income levels per person will all have a significant impact on future food demand. There is only one way to raise food production without further depletion of natural resources, and that is to boost total factor productivity (TFP). This study uses panel data analysis to investigate the factors that affect agricultural TFP in both developed and developing countries. Data is taken from the USDA/ERS (the United States Department of Agriculture/Economic Research Service), the World Bank, Penn World Table, and FAO over the period of 2002–2016 and consists of 32 developed and developing countries. According to our results, TFP in agriculture is increasing with the high level of human capital in developing countries. Moreover, the results of the study indicate that increases in gross fixed capital formation and the amount of arable land in both groups of countries contribute positively to TFP. However, TFP decreases while the agricultural employment rate increases for both developed and developing countries.

What Drives the Long-Run Effective Corporate Tax Rates? Evidence from Agricultural Companies in Serbia

Previous research on the determinants of effective corporate tax rates (ETRs) dominantly studied annual ETRs. On the other hand, in this paper we examined the impact of firm characteristics on long-run ETRs (LRETRs) of agricultural companies in the transition economy of Serbia, where statutory corporate tax rate is set at 15%. Research showed that the LRETR of the average Serbian agricultural company is well below the statutory rate. Regression analysis showed that larger agricultural companies have significantly lower LRETRs, consistent with the political power hypothesis. Capital intensity negatively influences LRETRs, while leverage and profitability do not appear to significantly impact them. Using quantile regression, it is shown that the impact of firm characteristics on LRETR is different on different parts of its distribution. Research results are robust to important changes in the research sample. We have also proposed changes in investment tax incentives rules to ensure fairer corporate tax treatment of larger and smaller agricultural companies. We argue that making investment tax incentives accessible to smaller companies would mitigate the political power hypothesis.

Evaluating willingness to pay for agricultural insurance and determinants of agricultural insurance purchasing in Samsun province of Türkiye

The study focused on the farmers’ potential risks, willingness to pay (WTP) for agricultural insurance, and factors affecting the purchasing of agricultural insurance associated with their farm types. The objectives of the study conducted in Samsun province of Türkiye are (i) to bring out the link between individually insurable risk and agricultural insurance purchase, (ii) to calculate the amount of farmers’ willingness to pay for insurance policy, (iii) to explore the determinants of insurance policy purchasing, (iv) to examine the effects of farmers’ communication level, social participation and information sources on the insurance purchasing, and (v) to reveal the relationship between amounts of purchased agricultural insurance and insurance premium. Farm operators’ willingness to pay (WTP) for purchasing agricultural insurance were elicited by using the Contingent Valuation Method (CVM). Sensitivity of the farm operators to insurance premium changes explored by using Tobit models. Research results showed that 72.6% of farms had the insurable risk and 67.3% of these farms purchase insurance. Based on the logit analysis, risk exposure, land tenure, subsidy and agricultural insurance’s awaraness positively affected the purchasing insurance. CVM analysis explored that the average amount of WTP for agricultural insurance was 28% of the current insurance premium. The study suggests that revising the content of insurance policy, solving payment disputes and expanding the policy coverage may accelerate farmers’ adoption to agricultural insurance. Decision makers and insurance company should consider not only WTP and elasticities of agricultural insurance demand, but also the farm type differentation when determining the subsidies number and insurance premium.

The Impact of Climate Change on Food Security Dimensions in Egypt by 2070

Egypt is one of the countries expected to suffer from climate change in the next 50 years. This study analyses the impacts of climate change on food security dimensions in Egypt during the period 2022–2070 by using statistical analysis methods (ARIMA and MLR). The study found that there is a negative and significant impact of climate change on food availability, food access, food utilization, and food stability. In terms of food availability, increases in temperature will reduce yields of wheat from 8.1% up to 24.5%, maize from 9.7% up to 29.1%, and rice from 2.1% up to 6.1% by 2070. In terms of food access, food prices are expected to rise from 13.5% to 18.9% by 2070. In terms of food utilization, it is expected that there will be an increase in the percentage of children under 5 years of age who are overweight from 17.8% to 21.2% and an increase in the prevalence of obesity in the adult population (18 years and older) from 40.0% to 53.1% by 2070. In terms of food stability, the food security level in Egypt will decrease from 76.1% to 73.9%. This study recommends some adaptation options to reduce the impact of climate change on food security dimensions in Egypt, including designing and applying a national adaptation strategy.

Macroeconomic Effects of Grain Price Volatility in Morocco

This paper investigate how cereal price volatility impacts import bill, tax revenue and foreign exchange reserves in Morocco. It uses GARCH family models to characterize the price and exchange rate volatility functions, ARDL model and Toda and Yamamoto’s (1995) causality test to study respectively cointegration and causal relationship. Based on monthly data between January 1999 and December 2019, we find that 1% increase of price volatility and volatility-import leads to respectively increase the import bill by 0.07% and 16.7% on the long run. Meantime, the short-run estimates suggest that the effects of price volatility and the volatility-import level are negative meaning that the lagged value of these variables will have a positive impact on the next month’s import bill.  Thus, we assume that price volatility should be heavier on the import bill when the annual production is low. Our results also indicate that cereals price volatility can induce serious consequences because it directly causes an increase in the overall import bill and indirectly influences import tax revenues and foreign exchange reserves, especially when it is associated with a poor domestic harvest.

Résilience des ménages face à l’insécurité alimentaire et au changement climatique dans les régions du centre et du nordest de la Tunisie: Une analyse empirique

The objective of this paper is to examine the resilience of households to food insecurity and to identify the determinants of this resilience in two study areas: Kairouan and Zaghouan. The study relied on a cross-sectional database collected from 671 smallholder farmers. Multivariate techniques including factor analysis and linear regression models were used to measure resilience and identify its determinants. The results indicate that the levels of vulnerability and resilience are different depending on the specificity of the region. In Zaghouan, 63% of agricultural households are vulnerable and 28% of households are very resilient. On the other hand, 51% of households surveyed are vulnerable in Kairouan and 42% of households are very resilient. The results reveal that the most important determinants of household resilience to food insecurity are income and access to food, ownership of assets, and access to basic services.  The “climate change” negatively affect household resilience and should be further investigated in the long term. Interventions must target strategies that address the different levels of resilience reflected by the resilience estimators.

An approach to the perceptions of Spanish consumers on food sustainability through the use of projective techniques

Increasing social concern regarding the environmental impact caused by the growth of the world’s population and the need to produce food has led to terms such as sustainability and sustainable food production and consumption to become a current subject of discussion. However, consumers are yet not fully familiar with the concept of sustainability and what it actually entails. This paper uses projective techniques as the ideal methodology to overcome these limitations and analyse the meaning of sustainability for Spanish consumers. Results show that consumers associate sustainability with the environment, although when it is referred to food, other concepts such as local/proximity food and responsible consumption also emerge. Also, while consumers find a clear association between sustainability and organic production, this is not so clear when health is also involved. Finally, respondents’ lifestyles served us as a basis to identify three consumer groups with notable differences in terms of their perception of sustainability. These results point to the need for policies that promote sustainable food production and its awareness by consumers to help mitigate environmental degradation

The effect of information technology (IT) on household income among farmers in Ghana: How does access to financial services serve as a mediator

In emerging countries, information technology (IT) and access to financial services (AFS) are critical determinants determining household income. However, little is known about how IT and AFS work together to increase home wellbeing. This research aims to look into the influence of access to financial services in mediating the impact of IT on household income in Ghana. The study investigates the role of social networks as a moderator in the IT-AFS interaction. A multi-stage sampling strategy was used to collect data from 478 farmers for this study. The study discovered that having access to technology and financial services increases household income. Due to the mediation role of access to financial services, the positive impact of access to IT on household income was also proven. The variable, social network, influenced these mechanisms. This research shows how having access to technology and financial inclusion can help people get out of poverty. This work adds to the body of knowledge. The paper includes policies for ensuring IT and AFS development to improve the welfare of rural households.

The Awareness and Adoption of Environmentally Sustainable Practices by Agricultural Cooperative Members in Zambia

As the world population is continuously growing, agricultural practices should be done sustainably to achieve food security, nutrition, and economic success. Due to the networking, economies of scale and improved access to information, collective actions and producers’ cooperatives seem to be a good instrument for acquiring, sharing and promoting such practices. Therefore, the main aim of this study was to estimate the effect of cooperative membership on the awareness and adoption of environmentally sustainable practices. We purposively selected 210 members and 166 non-members of maize cooperatives in the Southern province of Zambia. To cater for both observed and unobserved bias in the study, we adopted the propensity score matching and endogenous treatment effect models. The study results confirm that cooperative membership positively influences the awareness and adoption of sustainable environmental practices used in the study but encourages the usage of synthetic fertilizers because of the government input subsidy.

The Relationship Between Members’ Participation and Organizational Trust in Cooperative Firms: A Case of Dairy Cooperatives in Izmir Province/Turkey

Relationship between cooperative-member is very important for cooperatives to continue their activities successfully and effectively. Effective management of cooperative depends on participation of members in the process of cooperative management. The desire to participate in the management varies according to person to person. The main purpose of this study is to determine members’ organizational trust level and examine the willingness to participate of members’ into the decision making process according to organizational trust level. Interviews were conducted with142 members in Izmir. Organizational Trust Inventory (OTI) was used. Factor analysis and cluster analysis were used to divide into groups to members’ organizational trust level. It has been determined that the members in the “non-trusting” group are more willing to participate in the management. Age, education and organizational trust, etc. have affected a willingness to participate in cooperative management. Professional management is necessary in order to raise economic and social profit of members. Cooperative leaders should not ignore the opinions of its members and they should also maintain good contact with members.

Are tenancy land markets equitable? A review of the “farmer selection dynamics” in Algeria

The significant development of the commodification of agricultural land in developing countries these last decades, notably through tenancy practices, raises serious questions about the equity of its redistribution. Studies on the equity of land markets show contradictory findings. By analyzing the rental market in the large irrigated perimeter of Guelma, northeast Algeria, this article contributes to this debate by answering the following research question: are tenancy land markets equitable? To answer this question, we essentially surveyed a quarter of the landowners in the main agricultural zone of the perimeter (52/208) and the direct tenants of the surveyed assignors (30) in 2020. We found that in the irrigated perimeter of Guelma, the rental land market has led to (1) the exclusion from the production system of landowners with few resources and unable to provide the necessary means for cash crops that have technically considerably evolved, and (2) the spatial exclusion from good lands of small tenants, relatively inefficient and unable to keep up with large tenants in the level of their rental offer. We refer to this general dynamic as “farmer selection”.

Evaluation of Household Resilience Capacity Index to Food insecurity Case study: Hosein Abad Rekhneh Gol village – Iran

The present study estimates households’ resilience against food insecurity in a selected village of Qalandar Abad district in Iran. The Resilience Index Measurement and Analysis (RIMA) of the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO) was used for the first time in Iran, to achieve this goal. The samples included 149 farmers randomly selected and the Data were collected through interviews. The factor analysis method was used to estimate the components of resilience, and the MIMIC method was used to estimate the latent variable of resilience. The results showed that the components of asset and adaptive capacity had a significant role in increasing the resilience of rural households in the study area. Variables such as the land area, water availability, and the yield of crops had a significant positive role in improving the asset pillar. The households head and other members’ education also had a significant positive effect in improving the adaptive capacity pillar. Therefore, due to time and budget constraints in the execution of macro-policies, adopting and implementing policies that increase the above components will improve the resilience of rural households

A field survey suggests changes in oasis characteristics in the Kebili region of southern Tunisia

Since their establishment, “traditional” oases have been known to be three-layered, while modern oaseshave been organized from their outset with one layer only of ‘Deglet Nour’ date palm cultivars. However, these definitions may no longer apply for Kebilian oases. A survey was therefore carried out on a random sample of 52 plots in Kebilian oases (“traditional” n=26 and “modern” n=26) to investigate the current situation. The data collected were analysed by the Pivot Tables method and a Chi-2 test of independence, and by a Multiple Component Analysis completed by an Ascending Hierarchical Classification analysis to characterise and classify each oasis type. Our results showed that “modern” oases have greater crop diversity than expected and can be organized in two or three-layer oases. In contrast, high crop diversity and the three vertical layers were found to be less frequent than expected in “traditional” oases. Our investigation found water availability in the oases, and irrigation frequency, to be the key factors of Kebilian oasis layout and typology changes. Agro-biodiversity losses could jeopardize the sustainability of the oasis system in “traditional” oases.

Comparing the uses of available labor and capital in diversified farming systems in Drâa oases (Morocco)

In this study, uses of labor were characterized using the ‘Work Balance’ method in a sample of 17 oasis farms. The results showed that almost 44% of total uses of labor are devoted to livestock, while the remainders 56% are used for crops. The labor required to raise livestock was almost entirely (92%) provided by family member, whereas that required for crops was mostly provided by hired laborers. Date palms are the pillar of the oasis farming system and enable the positive synergies of this mixed crop/livestock system. Date wastes and cereal straw are used to feed the animals, while the livestock supplies the farmers with milk and meat, and their sale ensures the purchase of agricultural inputs in the period preceding date harvest. Our results show that labor is an essential component of oasis farming systems, as it provides opportunities to achieve a circular economy. Otherwise, on farms specialized in crops that have no livestock, the economic efficiency of labor is higher, thanks to higher investments. Taken together, these results suggest that there are ways to improve the efficiency of the uses of labor on oasis farms.

Reinventing the wheel: adapting a traditional circular irrigation system to ‘modern’ agricultural extensions in Algeria’s Sahara

One of the most elaborate community initiatives for the management of groundwater consists of managed aquifer recharge and use. In the oases in the M’zab valley in the Algerian Sahara, the collective action that upholds these initiatives has been challenged in past decades by the development of intensive groundwater use with individual pumps in new agricultural areas. However, faced with water shortage and inspired by the more circular irrigation practices in oases, farmers are increasingly creating local use loops in these extension areas by installing recharge devices and using water more carefully. This
study analyzes the functioning of the circular managed aquifer recharge and use system in Beni Isguen oasis, and how farmers have reinvented it in agricultural extensions, creatively combining it with modern technologies to engage in market-oriented agriculture. Reinventing circular practices in new agricultural extensions can contribute to more environmentally sustainable forms of agriculture.

Farmers’ perceptions of water management in Jemna oasis, Southern Tunisia

Groundwater resources are a crucial driver of development. Since the 1970s, the expansion of irrigated land on the margins of the existing ‘traditional’ oases has been encouraged by the Tunisian authorities to enhance local development. As a result, oases in Southern Tunisia are currently facing sustainability concerns. This situation requires alternative water management approaches, in which local actors collaborate and contribute to the design of new rules. To understand Tunisian oasis farmers’ perceptions of water rules and public organisations, in 2021, we conducted an online survey in Jemna, an oasis in the Kebili region in Southern Tunisia.
The picture that emerged from the online survey is that farmers in extension areas have distinctive characteristics but also similarities with farmers in the traditional oasis. Both types of farmers mainly cultivate date palm (monoculture), and, like farmers in the extensions, many farmers in the traditional oasis have a private borehole.
All farmers in the Jemna oasis clearly perceive the limited availability and poor quality of the groundwater resource. However, they do not believe these problems cause conflict among farmers. They consider that, to solve possible conflicts and to ensure better water management in the oasis, collaboration among farmers is more effective than changes to rules issued by existing organisations. These preliminary results, if confirmed, can have important policy implications, as the farmers’ perceptions of water rules and organisations, as well as farmers’ willingness to collaborate, are crucial for a possible new approach to water management in the oasis.