Assessing Serbia’s cereals export to the Middle East markets

Abstract

Agriculture, especially cereal production, is one of the few sectors in which Serbia has a significant comparative advantage. Due to the policy of approaching the EU, almost all grain exports are placed in a few EU countries, which are not end-users but are also significant producers and resellers on the world market. This increases the risk of external shocks and reduces earnings from exports, while end importers pay a higher price. This research aims to determine the complementarity between Serbia’s exports of cereals and the import demand of the Middle East and North Africa (MENA) countries. For these purposes, the markets analysis was conducted (including food safety indicators), and two different import-export matching coefficients were applied. Serbia’s competitiveness in relation to the current suppliers of MENA for each type of cereals was assessed. The results showed high trade complementarity in terms of corn and wheat with all countries in the region, while for a few of them, it was barley. The trade routes for each type of cereal specified in this research are guidelines for engaging the government in export promotion.

The performance of the Tunisian olive oil exports within the new distribution of world demand

Abstract

The present work aims to analyze the performance of the Tunisian olive oil exports compared to its main competitors (Spain, Italy, Greece, Turkey and Portugal) during the last fifteen years, on the European market and four potential markets: the United States, Canada, Japan and Brazil using the Shift Share Analysis, in order to identify the main sources of change. The period 2011-2015 was a boom period for Tunisia in all studied markets. The gain in Tunisian competitiveness on the new markets (Canada, Japan and Brazil) is related to the growth of their global imports and the competitiveness of Tunisian exports reinforced by the superior quality of Tunisian extra virgin olive oil and the recourse to packaged oil. The results indicate that the maintenance of a sustainable international competitiveness of Tunisia on the olive oil market depends on its domestic production and that of its European competitors, to which is added recently the Turkish competition, policies and trade agreements that must be negotiated and requires the improvement of its non-price competitiveness.

Sustainable Development Goals in the Andalusian olive oil cooperative sector: Heritage, innovation, gender perspective and sustainability

Abstract

The Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) represent a commitment to sustainability through innovation, sustainable economic growth and the diversification of economic activities. The social economy and the revaluation of rural heritage play a fundamental role in implementing and progressing towards these goals, especially in agri-food cooperatives. In the case of the Spanish olive oil industry, a substantial percentage of the business in olive oil producing areas revolves around the social economy: 70% of the olive oil produced in Spain is made by cooperatives. For these cooperatives, the implementation of the SDGs offers them a potential tool for sustainable development, diversification and the economic growth of their businesses. This article focuses on analysing the relative importance of the SDGs in the olive oil cooperative sector in Andalusia, using the Qualitative Comparative Analysis (QCA) technique and applying the fuzzy-set approach (fsQCA) to the tenets of the SDGs. Lastly, causal models have been established, the practical implications of which centre on the implementation and development of the SDGs as a means of achieving the sustainable economic growth of these enterprises. The main findings of this study suggest that the sustainable development goals on which the cooperative societies analyzed are focused, in addition to producing olive oil, promote values linked to food security, sustainability, the showcasing of heritage, and gender equality.

Bridging the Knowledge Gap of Apple Growers: Transition from Conventional to Organic Production Pattern

Abstract

Organic agriculture (OA) is an ecological, economic and social system that has been in the spotlight to replace and reduce the adverse consequences of conventional agriculture (CA) and achieve sustainable agriculture. The future of OA depends heavily on the knowledge of producers. Accordingly, the current research is based on the Borich model and a survey method using a questionnaire, to examine the existing knowledge and needed by Damavand gardeners to produce organic apples. Thus, using Cochran’s formula, a sample of 158 gardeners were selected and interviewed by simple random sampling method. The results showed that in the planting stage, most of the respondents had very poor and weak level of knowledge, in the growing stage and the harvest the less than needed average level of knowledge to produce organic apples. However, this need decreases with increasing issues such as level of education, use of information resources, level of cultivation and work experience. Finally, based on the Borich model, priority educational issues were identified to bridge the knowledge gap in order to produce organic apples in the planting, growing and harvesting stages.

The informal sector and the challenge of regional development in southeastern Tunisia

Abstract

This paper tries to highlight the territorial development in the governorates of South East Tunisia on the border with Libya. Our main objective is to show the existence of a direct relationship between regional diparity and work in informal trade.This work proposes to aggregate a set of regional development indicators of each delegation in order to draw up a typology of the delegations as well as to calculate a territorial development index for each delegation and to discern any failures hindering their development. Also, this analysis addresses the subject of informal trade in southeastern of Tunisia. Following this, a survey will be made with the informal trade actors to analyze their situations and finally an analysis of the state intervention as well as recommendations will be proposed.  Our work has shown that regional and local disparity is one of the causes of informal trade in the southeast. As well as the workshops, that we organized confirmed that most of the players in the informal trade are unemployed young people. Here, there are also people who are currently working and who a fixed income, but they are informal traders.

Unravelling interactive innovation through a stakeholder-associated risk analysis: evidence from two case studies in Spain

Abstract

Interactive innovation is the innovation process that is co-produced by the interaction of actors, such as farmers, land managers, researchers, policy makers and consumers. It connotes complex and socio scientific problems that utilize participatory methodologies to bring in diverse perspectives of stakeholders, who have control over the development and decision-making process. Most failure or information absence come from insufficient communication transfer, which can result in conflicts between stakeholders, especially in projects with multi actor partnership and multidisciplinary stakeholders. Rural innovation is addressed by measuring stakeholder interactions that take place in the project. By identifying the risks in the network and the stakeholders associated to the risks, we find the underlying cause of the problem in two case studies in Spain. Results reveal that lack of communication among internal stakeholders was the main threat in both projects. Recommended action plans included establishing an effective communication strategy, establishing a well-defined terminology to avoid miscommunication among internal stakeholders and taking into account ethical and cultural differences among stakeholders to avoid mistrust. The risk analysis provides stakeholders with a holistic view over the project in knowing the location of the resources and where the problem lies. This way stakeholders can scrape out the wound.

The Effect of Robotic Milking Systems on Economic Performance of Dairy Farms with a Simulation Model

Abstract

The most remarkable technology brought to dairy farms by the digital transformation in agriculture is undoubtedly robotic milking systems (RMS). Knowing the economic impact of this technology is essential for farmers to adopt. For this purpose, in the study; a simulation model was created that gives possible economic analysis results as a result of the use of RMS by using the current economic analysis results of dairy farms. For the economic analysis of dairy farms, data obtained from face-to-face surveys from 148 dairy farms were used. Assumptions used in the simulation model for comparing RMS and conventional milking systems (CMS) were 8.66% increase in milk yield, 58.46% increase in investment costs, 36.66% increase in energy consumption, 1.33% increase in feed costs and 27.84% decrease in labor input. The economic analysis of the dairy farms was made again with these new input and output values obtained. While the simulation results show that the use of RMS is a preferable investment that increases profitability for 10-60 head and 121 + head groups; it shows that it will be an investment that negatively affects profitability for the 61-120 head group. The simulation model was used by taking the average values of the data belonging to the dairy farm groups. A dairy farmer considering an RMS investment can be able to obtain a result specific to his farm if he combines the simulation model with his own economic analysis results.

Le degré d’efficacité des contrats formels dans la nouvelle politique laitière algérienne

Abstract

Dans sa nouveauté, la politique laitière oblige les laiteries, conventionnées préalablement avec l’Etat, à proposer aux producteurs et collecteurs de lait cru des contrats formels et écrits qui doivent, en pratique, contribuer à résoudre ou à limiter les multiples défaillances du marché. De façon exhaustive, il sera question, dans cet article, en mobilisant les outils d’analyse des théories des contrats et des coûts de transaction, d’analyser la nature de ces contrats formels qui lient les laiteries à leurs fournisseurs de lait cru. Cet examen éclairera les pratiques contractuelles dans un processus de coordination verticale d’une filière en dynamique propulsée par les différents soutiens et primes de l’Etat. Ce cas d’étude est original dans la mesure où la relation contractuelle est imposée par l’Etat comme condition sine qua non d’obtention de ces primes et subventions. Il n’est donc pas étonnant que les clauses soient appliquées de façons incomplètes et contournées lorsque les rapports deviennent par trop inégalitaires. Les relations informelles participent à la solution de difficultés rencontrées dans la pratique. Ces contrats n’en sont pas moins des outils de structuration et de modernisation de la filière lait.