Towards an Innovative Olive Oil Value Chain: Options for Inclusive Development in South-Eastern Tunisia

Abstract

The objective of this paper is to analyse the olive oil value chain (OVC) in the Governorate of Medenine (south-east of Tunisia) and the relationships between its main operators for an effective involvement and better performance and resilience of olive sector. Based on semi structured interviews and participatory multi-stakeholders’ workshops, OVC has been analysed and described. MACTOR approach has been applied to establish linkages among chain operators and activities in a partnership approach. Innovative interventions were proposed to strengthen farmers’ organizations to increase profitability of OVC.
Empirical findings suggest that public-private-civil society partnerships are essential for the development of pro-poor approaches for uncovering technological and institutional innovations which may involve more inclusive olive oil value chains. The underpinnings of our argument will be of interest and value to both development practitioners and the research community engaged within Tunisia, and the wider region more generally, on initiatives aimed at fostering effective, inclusive and contextually relevant processes for agricultural innovation.

The Impact of Agricultural Cooperatives on Efficiency and Productivity: Evidence from Olive-growing Farms in West Bank of Palestine

Abstract

Collective action by farmers including the development of cooperatives is regarded as one of solutions to overcome low productivity. This study investigates the impact of agricultural cooperative on technical efficiency (TE) and total factor productivity (TFP) of olive farms in the West Bank of Palestine. Using cross-section data of olive-growing farms in Jenin governorate, we estimated a stochastic frontier production function with inefficiency components. TFP was also estimated by residual approach. We employed propensity score matching to reduce self-selection bias in becoming a member of the cooperative. Results suggest that cooperative membership has a positive impact on TE and TFP, as joining a cooperative raises the TE by 10.16 to 10.52 percentage points. We interpret access to credits, land and productive olive seedlings, and extension services provided by cooperatives are possible pathways that affect TE and TFP. Due to the existence of huge inefficiency and low land productivity of olive farms in Jenin, we imply participation in cooperatives is an effective strategy for them to catch up with productive farms in the Mediterranean region.

Eliciting stakeholder preferences on the potential benefit of diversified small scale fishery activities

Abstract

Collective action by farmers including the development of cooperatives is regarded as one of solutions to overcome low productivity. This study investigates the impact of agricultural cooperative on technical efficiency (TE) and total factor productivity (TFP) of olive farms in the West Bank of Palestine. Using cross-section data of olive-growing farms in Jenin governorate, we estimated a stochastic frontier production function with inefficiency components. TFP was also estimated by residual approach. We employed propensity score matching to reduce self-selection bias in becoming a member of the cooperative. Results suggest that cooperative membership has a positive impact on TE and TFP, as joining a cooperative raises the TE by 10.16 to 10.52 percentage points. We interpret access to credits, land and productive olive seedlings, and extension services provided by cooperatives are possible pathways that affect TE and TFP. Due to the existence of huge inefficiency and low land productivity of olive farms in Jenin, we imply participation in cooperatives is an effective strategy for them to catch up with productive farms in the Mediterranean region.

Pass-through of global food commodity prices to food inflation in Morocco: A structural VAR approach

Abstract

This paper examines the pass-through of world food commodity prices to food inflation in Morocco, over the period 2004-2018, by using Structural Vector Autoregression (SVAR) model on monthly data. Several interesting results are found from this study. First, the impact of global food prices on domestic food inflation is shown significant, which reflects the large imported component in the domestic food consumption basket. Second, the transmission effect is found to vary across commodities. Consumer prices of cereals and oils significantly and positively respond to external price shocks, while those of dairy and beverages are weakly influenced. Third, there is evidence of asymmetries in the pass-through from world to domestic food prices, where external positive shocks generate a stronger local prices response than negative ones. This situation is indicative of policy and market distortions, namely the subsidies, price controls, and weak competitive market structures. Our findings suggest that food price movements should require much attention in monetary policymaking, especially that the country has taken preliminary steps towards the adoption of floating exchange rate and targeting inflation regimes.

A regional agricultural model for reallocation of water resources in central-eastern Tunisia

Abstract

Good management of water resources requires a good allocation of their availability, especially in public irrigated schemes in Tunisia. This paper contributes to a better reallocation of available water resources at the farm and regional levels.
A case study was discussed in the Kalâa Kebira region, in the center-east of Tunisia. Regional models based on aggregation and the possibility of water transfer between two irrigated schemes was tested.
The results show that a good seasonal allocation is possible with a total regional exchange of 9.60% m3 of water available between these two schemes. This reallocation is beneficial at the regional level, recording an increase of 2.12% in agricultural income and less beneficial, except for farms that are less competitive, in terms of use of water resources. This reallocation also allows for cultural diversity and specification of agricultural farms. Competitiveness in the water use, diversification and specification of agricultural production systems help to preserve natural resources but they also help to satisfy demand of the regional market.Good management of water resources requires a good allocation of their availability, especially in public irrigated schemes in Tunisia. This paper contributes to a better reallocation of available water resources at the farm and regional levels.
A case study was discussed in the Kalâa Kebira region, in the center-east of Tunisia. Regional models based on aggregation and the possibility of water transfer between two irrigated schemes was tested.
The results show that a good seasonal allocation is possible with a total regional exchange of 9.60% m3 of water available between these two schemes. This reallocation is beneficial at the regional level, recording an increase of 2.12% in agricultural income and less beneficial, except for farms that are less competitive, in terms of use of water resources. This reallocation also allows for cultural diversity and specification of agricultural farms. Competitiveness in the water use, diversification and specification of agricultural production systems help to preserve natural resources but they also help to satisfy demand of the regional market.

Determining the food waste behaviour of consumers in Northwest Turkey: a crosssectional Analysis

Abstract

The aim of this study was to determine attitudes of consumers in the northwestern part of Turkey towards food waste behaviour. A structural equation model was used to analyze the attitudes and behaviour of consumers to food waste within the framework of the Theory of Planned Behaviour. It was found that food-related planning routines had no effect on food waste behaviour, but that food-related shopping routines encouraged food waste behaviour. On the other hand, the intention not to waste acted to discourage food waste behaviour in consumers. Accordingly, the tendency for consumers to buy more food than they need when shopping leads to an increase in food waste in the household, while the intention not to waste food acts to reduce the amount of waste. Moral attitudes increased the effect of shopping routines while perceived behaviour control had the effect of decreasing it. Intention not to waste was reduced by moral norms and enhanced by subjective norms. Food waste is an ever-increasing problem, but it is preventable. It is recommended that these factors be taken into consideration when developing campaigns, public information notices and workshops about food waste reduction.

Investigating causes of informal market for fresh meat: the case of Tirana prefecture, Albania

Abstract

This study is about the level and factors of informality concerning the fresh meat market in the prefecture of Tirana-Albania. Sample data for 200 households have been used to carry out the study. Descriptive statistics, linear and logistic multinomial econometric modeling techniques are used to analyze the data. The level of informality is 34%, while its major factors are the level of price, as well as safety and quality of meat. Other determinants are household’s income and consumption quantity and ineffective public monitoring system, while the education of the household’s header seems of dubious effect. Important policy implications would be improving the legislation, regulations and the tax system performance. Other recommendations would be improving the rule of law to prevent informal selling and stimulate legal trade. Design and maintain a pro-poor business policy for a positive investment climate encouraging employment and income generation is a priority. Rigorous control of production standards and stimulation of good farming practices as well as improving detection and the use of repressive measures would be some necessities but also tough challenges for the future.

Food and Agricultural Product Pilot Selection for Geographical Indication Projects

Abstract

This study assesses methodologies used during the selection of pilot products for the support to development of sustainable geographical indication projects by using the FAO/EBRD project as a case study. Relevant pilot products are essential to provide stakeholders with concrete experience, demonstrative effects and lessons learned in order to disseminate bets practices and facilitate scaling-out of sustainable GI processes. Qualitative data were transformed to quantitative data for product selection because data for local products were insufficient, and standard data were unavailable for each product. Analytic hierarchy process (AHP), simple scoring and geographical indication assessment form were used together as product selection methods. Gemlik Olives, the first registered geographical indication product in the Bursa province, was included during assessment as a control group. Six local products with a potential for GI registration were considered for pilot product selection to serve as demonstrative process. Results suggest that the most important selection criteria were “reputation of the product” and “power of the organisation” and first two ranked products selected for the project were Bursa Black Figs and Bursa Peaches.

Changing Route: Common Action on Food Systems Transformation in the Mediterranean

Abstract

The Coronavirus pandemic has revealed the fragility of our food systems, affecting all dimensions of food security and nutrition across the world. It has highlighted how deeply our world is interconnected and the importance of better recognising and understanding the interconnections that are intrinsic to these systems and their key role in pursuit of the SDGs of the 2030 Agenda. There is now, more than ever, a stronger need for a “route change” towards a common action on food systems transformation. Dialogues among all stakeholders to redesign the future of tomorrow’s food systems are needed to trigger collective, multi-stakeholder actions on the ground, at local, regional and global level, towards more sustainable food systems, linking sustainable food production to more healthy and sustainable food consumption. In this context CIHEAM, FAO, and the Union for the Mediterranean Secretariat (UfMS) initiated in 2019, a joint collaborative effort for the establishment of a multi-stakeholder platform on Sustainable Food Systems in the Mediterranean to accelerate the shift towards the Agenda 2030 in the Mediterranean region, with the Mediterranean diet acting as a driver.

Determining the food waste behaviour of consumers in Northwest Turkey: a crosssectional Analysis

Abstract

The aim of this study was to determine attitudes of consumers in the northwestern part of Turkey towards food waste behaviour. A structural equation model was used to analyze the attitudes and behaviour of consumers to food waste within the framework of the Theory of Planned Behaviour. It was found that food-related planning routines had no effect on food waste behaviour, but that food-related shopping routines encouraged food waste behaviour. On the other hand, the intention not to waste acted to discourage food waste behaviour in consumers. Accordingly, the tendency for consumers to buy more food than they need when shopping leads to an increase in food waste in the household, while the intention not to waste food acts to reduce the amount of waste. Moral attitudes increased the effect of shopping routines while perceived behaviour control had the effect of decreasing it. Intention not to waste was reduced by moral norms and enhanced by subjective norms. Food waste is an ever-increasing problem, but it is preventable. It is recommended that these factors be taken into consideration when developing campaigns, public information notices and workshops about food waste reduction.