Food security: the Mediterrean region’s desynchronize agenda

The Mediterranean is the scene of numerous geopolitical tensions which are reflected in the agricultural sector, a highly strategic but at the same time fragile sector.
The paper carries out a review of the geopolitics problems and food system challenges that the Mediterranean regions have to face. It highlights the urgency of action to move towards sustainable and resilient food systems in the Mediterranean area.
Multiple innovations will be needed until the Mediterranean achieves the most suitable conditions for guaranteeing its food security.
The demographic pick will oblige national governments to find solutions able to satisfy the increased food demand and to feed much more people than before.
It is necessary to increase South-North and South- South cooperation as drivers for structural growth, offering increased local opportunities as an alternative to economic migration and countries independent policies.

Determinants of the internationalisation of agrifood firms: The case of olive oil in southern Spain

The aim of this article is to identify the conditions for the internationalisation of olive oil producing firms in southern of Spain (province of Jaén), as this region accounts for 20 percent of total world production. To that end, we propose a model and test it with data from four premium extra virgin olive oil producing firms (two Born Globals and two non-Born Globals), combining a case study approach with Qualitative Comparative Analysis (QCA). The results show that firms must develop dynamic capabilities. To do so, firms must combine resources and capabilities; international market orientation, network orientation and entrepreneurship orientation strategies; and human, relational and technological capital. If this happens within the first three years of their incorporation, they can be Born Globals. These results can be extrapolated to other industries. Finally, this paper offers some policy implications for firms, such as: they should become more involved in facilitating the internationalisation process for olive oil firms, promote the olive culture abroad, facilitate access to foreign markets, publicise the health benefits of extra virgin olive oil (EVOO).

Quantification of production inefficiencies as a cost-savings tool for increasing the viability of traditional olive farms

Just like any other businesspeople, farmers have to take decisions every day that are crucial for the survival of their farms. They often wonder “Is the structure of my farm competitive and sustainable in time? Should I expand its size or modify the management? And if so, by how much? However, in many cases they do not have the necessary information to take good decisions. In this paper, we develop a methodology to estimate the production costs of farms as a means of assessing the impact of several structural inefficiencies. In this way, we show how changes in farm management can reduce costs, so increasing farm sustainability. Results show that significant economies of scale can be achieved in production, and that downtimes, farm fragmentation and dispersion have a substantial effect on production costs and profit margins. Furthermore, through cooperative forms of production and management, traditional farms can become more sustainable, while at the same time fostering rural and territorial development.

Total agricultural productivity in the Mediterranean region using the Malmquist index approach

This study aims to measure the total productivity of agricultural production factors through the calculation of the Malmquist index for six Mediterranean countries during the period 2003-2018. The results indicate that the growth of agricultural productivity in the Mediterranean region during this period by the calculation of the Malmquist index recorded an increase of 13.2%. Much of this productivity growth is driven by technological change rather than a change in technical efficiency or scale. In fact, the technology change increased by 13%, while the technical efficiency change showed a slight increase of 0.2% due to the scale efficiency change of the same percentage. It should be noted that the total productivity of agricultural production factors and the contribution of technical change and scale efficiency have the same trend at the subregional level, but are different at the country level. These results show that the total productivity of agricultural production factors is highly variable between Mediterranean countries and that the overall efficiency gains obtained are largely due to the phenomenon of technological catch-up rather than to gains in scale or efficiency pure.

Social dimension of sustainability: assessment in the agribusiness context

Studies on sustainability of agribusinesses often overlook the social dimension of sustainability. The social pillar is clearly the least studied of the three traditional pillars of sustainability, and the classification and estimation of the indicators used to measure it present some weaknesses. On top of that, some social indicators lack scientific validity while others are most commonly limited to capturing intra-company realities. This paper focuses on addressing this gap by identifying the most mentioned sustainability assessment models on the literature in an agribusiness context, selecting the social indicators across the identified models and classifying those according to their thematic scope. We carry out a literature review resorting to systematic and integrative methodology, aiming at revealing the social indicators that have already been used or tested in sustainability assessments with focus on the agribusiness context. The resulting list of articles is identified according to the systematic criteria enunciated and observing the Prisma protocol. This review is then complemented by a detailed bibliometric analysis of the articles identified, which is deepened with a qualitative and quantitative content analysis using exploratory techniques that allow the visualization of semantic patterns, which may help the identification of indicators with strong relevance to the social sustainability evaluation. As a result, this paper presents information on indicators used for the assessment of Social Sustainability since 1999 to the beginning of 2022, highlighting trends in the themes addressed and changes in focus. By compiling and systematising a comprehensive series of social sustainability indicators, we aim to bring valuable contributions to the future outline of an assessment framework that will incorporate social sustainability dimensions underlying a broader perspective on agribusiness sustainability. Ultimately, this research aims at supporting the sustainable development of the sector from a social perspective.

What Explains Total Factor Productivity in Agriculture: An Empirical Investigation Using Panel Data Analysis

Considering population projections, which are estimated to be 10 billion people in the world by 2050, agricultural demand is expected to rise by about 50% compared to 2013 levels, even under a moderate economic development scenario. The number of people will increase in cities, and higher income levels per person will all have a significant impact on future food demand. There is only one way to raise food production without further depletion of natural resources, and that is to boost total factor productivity (TFP). This study uses panel data analysis to investigate the factors that affect agricultural TFP in both developed and developing countries. Data is taken from the USDA/ERS (the United States Department of Agriculture/Economic Research Service), the World Bank, Penn World Table, and FAO over the period of 2002–2016 and consists of 32 developed and developing countries. According to our results, TFP in agriculture is increasing with the high level of human capital in developing countries. Moreover, the results of the study indicate that increases in gross fixed capital formation and the amount of arable land in both groups of countries contribute positively to TFP. However, TFP decreases while the agricultural employment rate increases for both developed and developing countries.

What Drives the Long-Run Effective Corporate Tax Rates? Evidence from Agricultural Companies in Serbia

Previous research on the determinants of effective corporate tax rates (ETRs) dominantly studied annual ETRs. On the other hand, in this paper we examined the impact of firm characteristics on long-run ETRs (LRETRs) of agricultural companies in the transition economy of Serbia, where statutory corporate tax rate is set at 15%. Research showed that the LRETR of the average Serbian agricultural company is well below the statutory rate. Regression analysis showed that larger agricultural companies have significantly lower LRETRs, consistent with the political power hypothesis. Capital intensity negatively influences LRETRs, while leverage and profitability do not appear to significantly impact them. Using quantile regression, it is shown that the impact of firm characteristics on LRETR is different on different parts of its distribution. Research results are robust to important changes in the research sample. We have also proposed changes in investment tax incentives rules to ensure fairer corporate tax treatment of larger and smaller agricultural companies. We argue that making investment tax incentives accessible to smaller companies would mitigate the political power hypothesis.

Evaluating willingness to pay for agricultural insurance and determinants of agricultural insurance purchasing in Samsun province of Türkiye

The study focused on the farmers’ potential risks, willingness to pay (WTP) for agricultural insurance, and factors affecting the purchasing of agricultural insurance associated with their farm types. The objectives of the study conducted in Samsun province of Türkiye are (i) to bring out the link between individually insurable risk and agricultural insurance purchase, (ii) to calculate the amount of farmers’ willingness to pay for insurance policy, (iii) to explore the determinants of insurance policy purchasing, (iv) to examine the effects of farmers’ communication level, social participation and information sources on the insurance purchasing, and (v) to reveal the relationship between amounts of purchased agricultural insurance and insurance premium. Farm operators’ willingness to pay (WTP) for purchasing agricultural insurance were elicited by using the Contingent Valuation Method (CVM). Sensitivity of the farm operators to insurance premium changes explored by using Tobit models. Research results showed that 72.6% of farms had the insurable risk and 67.3% of these farms purchase insurance. Based on the logit analysis, risk exposure, land tenure, subsidy and agricultural insurance’s awaraness positively affected the purchasing insurance. CVM analysis explored that the average amount of WTP for agricultural insurance was 28% of the current insurance premium. The study suggests that revising the content of insurance policy, solving payment disputes and expanding the policy coverage may accelerate farmers’ adoption to agricultural insurance. Decision makers and insurance company should consider not only WTP and elasticities of agricultural insurance demand, but also the farm type differentation when determining the subsidies number and insurance premium.

The Impact of Climate Change on Food Security Dimensions in Egypt by 2070

Egypt is one of the countries expected to suffer from climate change in the next 50 years. This study analyses the impacts of climate change on food security dimensions in Egypt during the period 2022–2070 by using statistical analysis methods (ARIMA and MLR). The study found that there is a negative and significant impact of climate change on food availability, food access, food utilization, and food stability. In terms of food availability, increases in temperature will reduce yields of wheat from 8.1% up to 24.5%, maize from 9.7% up to 29.1%, and rice from 2.1% up to 6.1% by 2070. In terms of food access, food prices are expected to rise from 13.5% to 18.9% by 2070. In terms of food utilization, it is expected that there will be an increase in the percentage of children under 5 years of age who are overweight from 17.8% to 21.2% and an increase in the prevalence of obesity in the adult population (18 years and older) from 40.0% to 53.1% by 2070. In terms of food stability, the food security level in Egypt will decrease from 76.1% to 73.9%. This study recommends some adaptation options to reduce the impact of climate change on food security dimensions in Egypt, including designing and applying a national adaptation strategy.

Macroeconomic Effects of Grain Price Volatility in Morocco

This paper investigate how cereal price volatility impacts import bill, tax revenue and foreign exchange reserves in Morocco. It uses GARCH family models to characterize the price and exchange rate volatility functions, ARDL model and Toda and Yamamoto’s (1995) causality test to study respectively cointegration and causal relationship. Based on monthly data between January 1999 and December 2019, we find that 1% increase of price volatility and volatility-import leads to respectively increase the import bill by 0.07% and 16.7% on the long run. Meantime, the short-run estimates suggest that the effects of price volatility and the volatility-import level are negative meaning that the lagged value of these variables will have a positive impact on the next month’s import bill.  Thus, we assume that price volatility should be heavier on the import bill when the annual production is low. Our results also indicate that cereals price volatility can induce serious consequences because it directly causes an increase in the overall import bill and indirectly influences import tax revenues and foreign exchange reserves, especially when it is associated with a poor domestic harvest.

Résilience des ménages face à l’insécurité alimentaire et au changement climatique dans les régions du centre et du nordest de la Tunisie: Une analyse empirique

The objective of this paper is to examine the resilience of households to food insecurity and to identify the determinants of this resilience in two study areas: Kairouan and Zaghouan. The study relied on a cross-sectional database collected from 671 smallholder farmers. Multivariate techniques including factor analysis and linear regression models were used to measure resilience and identify its determinants. The results indicate that the levels of vulnerability and resilience are different depending on the specificity of the region. In Zaghouan, 63% of agricultural households are vulnerable and 28% of households are very resilient. On the other hand, 51% of households surveyed are vulnerable in Kairouan and 42% of households are very resilient. The results reveal that the most important determinants of household resilience to food insecurity are income and access to food, ownership of assets, and access to basic services.  The “climate change” negatively affect household resilience and should be further investigated in the long term. Interventions must target strategies that address the different levels of resilience reflected by the resilience estimators.

An approach to the perceptions of Spanish consumers on food sustainability through the use of projective techniques

Increasing social concern regarding the environmental impact caused by the growth of the world’s population and the need to produce food has led to terms such as sustainability and sustainable food production and consumption to become a current subject of discussion. However, consumers are yet not fully familiar with the concept of sustainability and what it actually entails. This paper uses projective techniques as the ideal methodology to overcome these limitations and analyse the meaning of sustainability for Spanish consumers. Results show that consumers associate sustainability with the environment, although when it is referred to food, other concepts such as local/proximity food and responsible consumption also emerge. Also, while consumers find a clear association between sustainability and organic production, this is not so clear when health is also involved. Finally, respondents’ lifestyles served us as a basis to identify three consumer groups with notable differences in terms of their perception of sustainability. These results point to the need for policies that promote sustainable food production and its awareness by consumers to help mitigate environmental degradation

The effect of information technology (IT) on household income among farmers in Ghana: How does access to financial services serve as a mediator

In emerging countries, information technology (IT) and access to financial services (AFS) are critical determinants determining household income. However, little is known about how IT and AFS work together to increase home wellbeing. This research aims to look into the influence of access to financial services in mediating the impact of IT on household income in Ghana. The study investigates the role of social networks as a moderator in the IT-AFS interaction. A multi-stage sampling strategy was used to collect data from 478 farmers for this study. The study discovered that having access to technology and financial services increases household income. Due to the mediation role of access to financial services, the positive impact of access to IT on household income was also proven. The variable, social network, influenced these mechanisms. This research shows how having access to technology and financial inclusion can help people get out of poverty. This work adds to the body of knowledge. The paper includes policies for ensuring IT and AFS development to improve the welfare of rural households.

The Awareness and Adoption of Environmentally Sustainable Practices by Agricultural Cooperative Members in Zambia

As the world population is continuously growing, agricultural practices should be done sustainably to achieve food security, nutrition, and economic success. Due to the networking, economies of scale and improved access to information, collective actions and producers’ cooperatives seem to be a good instrument for acquiring, sharing and promoting such practices. Therefore, the main aim of this study was to estimate the effect of cooperative membership on the awareness and adoption of environmentally sustainable practices. We purposively selected 210 members and 166 non-members of maize cooperatives in the Southern province of Zambia. To cater for both observed and unobserved bias in the study, we adopted the propensity score matching and endogenous treatment effect models. The study results confirm that cooperative membership positively influences the awareness and adoption of sustainable environmental practices used in the study but encourages the usage of synthetic fertilizers because of the government input subsidy.

The Relationship Between Members’ Participation and Organizational Trust in Cooperative Firms: A Case of Dairy Cooperatives in Izmir Province/Turkey

Relationship between cooperative-member is very important for cooperatives to continue their activities successfully and effectively. Effective management of cooperative depends on participation of members in the process of cooperative management. The desire to participate in the management varies according to person to person. The main purpose of this study is to determine members’ organizational trust level and examine the willingness to participate of members’ into the decision making process according to organizational trust level. Interviews were conducted with142 members in Izmir. Organizational Trust Inventory (OTI) was used. Factor analysis and cluster analysis were used to divide into groups to members’ organizational trust level. It has been determined that the members in the “non-trusting” group are more willing to participate in the management. Age, education and organizational trust, etc. have affected a willingness to participate in cooperative management. Professional management is necessary in order to raise economic and social profit of members. Cooperative leaders should not ignore the opinions of its members and they should also maintain good contact with members.

Are tenancy land markets equitable? A review of the “farmer selection dynamics” in Algeria

The significant development of the commodification of agricultural land in developing countries these last decades, notably through tenancy practices, raises serious questions about the equity of its redistribution. Studies on the equity of land markets show contradictory findings. By analyzing the rental market in the large irrigated perimeter of Guelma, northeast Algeria, this article contributes to this debate by answering the following research question: are tenancy land markets equitable? To answer this question, we essentially surveyed a quarter of the landowners in the main agricultural zone of the perimeter (52/208) and the direct tenants of the surveyed assignors (30) in 2020. We found that in the irrigated perimeter of Guelma, the rental land market has led to (1) the exclusion from the production system of landowners with few resources and unable to provide the necessary means for cash crops that have technically considerably evolved, and (2) the spatial exclusion from good lands of small tenants, relatively inefficient and unable to keep up with large tenants in the level of their rental offer. We refer to this general dynamic as “farmer selection”.

Evaluation of Household Resilience Capacity Index to Food insecurity Case study: Hosein Abad Rekhneh Gol village – Iran

The present study estimates households’ resilience against food insecurity in a selected village of Qalandar Abad district in Iran. The Resilience Index Measurement and Analysis (RIMA) of the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO) was used for the first time in Iran, to achieve this goal. The samples included 149 farmers randomly selected and the Data were collected through interviews. The factor analysis method was used to estimate the components of resilience, and the MIMIC method was used to estimate the latent variable of resilience. The results showed that the components of asset and adaptive capacity had a significant role in increasing the resilience of rural households in the study area. Variables such as the land area, water availability, and the yield of crops had a significant positive role in improving the asset pillar. The households head and other members’ education also had a significant positive effect in improving the adaptive capacity pillar. Therefore, due to time and budget constraints in the execution of macro-policies, adopting and implementing policies that increase the above components will improve the resilience of rural households

A field survey suggests changes in oasis characteristics in the Kebili region of southern Tunisia

Since their establishment, “traditional” oases have been known to be three-layered, while modern oaseshave been organized from their outset with one layer only of ‘Deglet Nour’ date palm cultivars. However, these definitions may no longer apply for Kebilian oases. A survey was therefore carried out on a random sample of 52 plots in Kebilian oases (“traditional” n=26 and “modern” n=26) to investigate the current situation. The data collected were analysed by the Pivot Tables method and a Chi-2 test of independence, and by a Multiple Component Analysis completed by an Ascending Hierarchical Classification analysis to characterise and classify each oasis type. Our results showed that “modern” oases have greater crop diversity than expected and can be organized in two or three-layer oases. In contrast, high crop diversity and the three vertical layers were found to be less frequent than expected in “traditional” oases. Our investigation found water availability in the oases, and irrigation frequency, to be the key factors of Kebilian oasis layout and typology changes. Agro-biodiversity losses could jeopardize the sustainability of the oasis system in “traditional” oases.

Comparing the uses of available labor and capital in diversified farming systems in Drâa oases (Morocco)

In this study, uses of labor were characterized using the ‘Work Balance’ method in a sample of 17 oasis farms. The results showed that almost 44% of total uses of labor are devoted to livestock, while the remainders 56% are used for crops. The labor required to raise livestock was almost entirely (92%) provided by family member, whereas that required for crops was mostly provided by hired laborers. Date palms are the pillar of the oasis farming system and enable the positive synergies of this mixed crop/livestock system. Date wastes and cereal straw are used to feed the animals, while the livestock supplies the farmers with milk and meat, and their sale ensures the purchase of agricultural inputs in the period preceding date harvest. Our results show that labor is an essential component of oasis farming systems, as it provides opportunities to achieve a circular economy. Otherwise, on farms specialized in crops that have no livestock, the economic efficiency of labor is higher, thanks to higher investments. Taken together, these results suggest that there are ways to improve the efficiency of the uses of labor on oasis farms.

Reinventing the wheel: adapting a traditional circular irrigation system to ‘modern’ agricultural extensions in Algeria’s Sahara

One of the most elaborate community initiatives for the management of groundwater consists of managed aquifer recharge and use. In the oases in the M’zab valley in the Algerian Sahara, the collective action that upholds these initiatives has been challenged in past decades by the development of intensive groundwater use with individual pumps in new agricultural areas. However, faced with water shortage and inspired by the more circular irrigation practices in oases, farmers are increasingly creating local use loops in these extension areas by installing recharge devices and using water more carefully. This
study analyzes the functioning of the circular managed aquifer recharge and use system in Beni Isguen oasis, and how farmers have reinvented it in agricultural extensions, creatively combining it with modern technologies to engage in market-oriented agriculture. Reinventing circular practices in new agricultural extensions can contribute to more environmentally sustainable forms of agriculture.

Farmers’ perceptions of water management in Jemna oasis, Southern Tunisia

Groundwater resources are a crucial driver of development. Since the 1970s, the expansion of irrigated land on the margins of the existing ‘traditional’ oases has been encouraged by the Tunisian authorities to enhance local development. As a result, oases in Southern Tunisia are currently facing sustainability concerns. This situation requires alternative water management approaches, in which local actors collaborate and contribute to the design of new rules. To understand Tunisian oasis farmers’ perceptions of water rules and public organisations, in 2021, we conducted an online survey in Jemna, an oasis in the Kebili region in Southern Tunisia.
The picture that emerged from the online survey is that farmers in extension areas have distinctive characteristics but also similarities with farmers in the traditional oasis. Both types of farmers mainly cultivate date palm (monoculture), and, like farmers in the extensions, many farmers in the traditional oasis have a private borehole.
All farmers in the Jemna oasis clearly perceive the limited availability and poor quality of the groundwater resource. However, they do not believe these problems cause conflict among farmers. They consider that, to solve possible conflicts and to ensure better water management in the oasis, collaboration among farmers is more effective than changes to rules issued by existing organisations. These preliminary results, if confirmed, can have important policy implications, as the farmers’ perceptions of water rules and organisations, as well as farmers’ willingness to collaborate, are crucial for a possible new approach to water management in the oasis.

The outward journey of a local innovation: the dissemination of an artisanal irrigation pivot from Algeria’s Sahara

User-led innovation is increasingly happening in a globalized context, connecting local experience to outside ideas, knowledge, and technologies. Alternatively, local innovations designed, manufactured and marketed for a particular context travel to other settings. We analyze the diffusion of a low-cost artisanal irrigation pivot from the Suf Valley (Algeria) to other Saharan regions and even to Saudi Arabia and Sudan. We conducted 27 semi-structured interviews with manufacturers, farmers, government agents, and made field observations on 18 farms in 2020/2021. The diffusion of the pivot was enabled by extending the innovation system to trusted innovation intermediaries in new settings, who played an active role in adapting the technology and support services to local agrarian systems. However, while the innovation homeland can be considered an open innovation environment, manufacturing and after-sales services in the new settings were tightly controlled by manufacturers to secure intellectual property and maintain a monopoly. This study contributes to the debate on the creativity of local innovation actors and their involvement in (supra)national agricultural development.

Oasis extension trajectories in Kebili territory, southern Tunisia: drivers of development and actors’ discourse

Since the 1970s, the Kebili region southern Tunisia has undergone significant territorial changes due to the expansion of date palm plantations based on illicit boreholes tapping the underlying deep aquifers. These private initiatives, called “extensions”, have developed on collective unfarmed areas, outside historical oases and have raised sustainability concerns. To address the groundwater sustainability, local actors need to build a joint vision of on-going dynamics. The objective of this study is: (i) to analyse the trajectories of the oasis extensions, (ii) to give an overview of the socio-economic and the environmental drivers and (iii) to assess how local actors assess these extensions.
The study builds on spatial analysis, on surveys and participatory workshops with actors of the region. The development of extensions was triggered by economic factors and based on innovative ways of accessing water, land, and energy. Extensions, that were first created on lands in proximity of ancient oases then spread further-out to other areas, can be described as spontaneous. Other were developed on lands located far from ancient oases, with the support of local councils in charge of land management. Actors have identified the overexploitation of groundwater as the main threat to the sustainability of the region, but no discussion has been initiated yet on how to deal with this threat. Results derived from this study could support discussions about the future of these areas.

A functional-structural approach to analyzing agricultural innovation systems in the dairy milk sector of the region of Ghardaïa – Algerian Northern Sahara

In recent years, despite its hostile environment and harsh climate, the wilaya of Ghardaïa has emerged as a leader in dairy production in southern Algeria. This article sought to analyze how the innovation system in the dairy sector has, positively or negatively, influenced the development of the sector in this region and identify the socio-economic factors and institutions that have contributed to it. To do so, a functional-structural approach was taken. The data used were collected from semi-directive interviews and focus groups with different stakeholders involved in the dairy milk sector. Market restructuring, but also the collective organization,
which is very common in the region, were found to be the main factors positively affecting the dairy sector. In addition, lobbying by the dairies and the asymmetry of power between dairy farmers and agri-food industrialists, a lack of collaboration and interaction between actors, a lack of coordination in knowledge development, and a lack of formal financing mechanisms to invest in livestock, turned out to be the factors hindering the innovation system. Finally, although the dairy sector in Ghardaïa attracts investors from the North of Algeria, and is thus a pronounced success in economic and organizational terms, the question of its sustainability is not being considered in these southern territories.

Sustainability assessment and analysis of Tunisian olive growing systems

This paper aims to assess and to analyze the sustainability of Tunisian olive growing system. Results show two types of farms in this sector. The first one is the traditional farms. The second is the modern farms. The sustainable value method (SV_method) inspired from the “ADVANCE” approach showed that those who adopt the modern management of the olive tree are more sustainable than the traditional type. In fact, the modern group presents a positive sustainable value. However, the traditional group recorded less efficient values than the Benchmark. Indeed, its Sustainable Value is negative, which means that the farms belonging to this group are not economically viable. Therefore, the traditional mode of management and the lack of innovation threaten future farming and viability of traditional olive tree farms. Furthermore, since most of these farms are family type, the cultural utility, which explains the current existence of these farms, will be insufficient and decision-makers must enhance the adoption of new governance models.

Enhancing quality-driven food consumption policies in Tunisia

In Tunisia, food security policies’ objectives are increasing production to satisfy the growing demand and reduce the food deficit rate (35% per year). Since 1980, intensive production system and government subsidies for basic commodities were used to enhance food availability. This article aims to analyze food quantitative security policy impact on Tunisian consumption model versus Mediterranean diet and to readjust policies for qualitative food security. Based on five-year National Statistics Institute surveys on household consumption from 1985 to 2015, ANOVA analysis shows the need to address rural and urban consumption separately. Three groups were identified through clustering by consumption deviation degree compared to 1985. Variables of consumption evolution were determined by linear regression: price, income, location, domestic production and a quality factor measuring the conformity degree with Mediterranean diet. In order to achieve a better adherence to Mediterranean diet, new measures and synergy should take place at several levels policy makers, producers and consumers.

The Effect of Digitalization on Unemployment Reduction

Digital transformation and the digitalization of economic activity are ongoing trends profoundly shaping the global economy. Digitalization reflects digital inputs in the production process and new household and government consumption modes, investment possibilities, and financial instruments, increasingly envisaged by digital technologies and tools. This is also impacting the labour markets, on the one hand substituting machines to labour for routinized tasks and thus decreasing the demand for soft skills labour, but on the other hand, increasing the need for new professions revolving around new production and consumption modalities and digital skills. Considering these contrasting effects, it is essential to estimate the overall impact of digitalization on employment. Therefore, this study captures the impact of economic growth and digitalization on unemployment change, evaluating a modified version of Okun’s Law on a balanced panel data set for 58 countries between 2013 and 2019. The results from the estimation of a fixed-effect model show the empirical validity of Okun’s law for the sampled countries and a significant contribution of digitalization on unemployment reduction.

Do Consumers Intend to Purchase the Food with Geographical Indication?

This research aims to determine the effect of consumers’ perceptions of GI on purchasing 6 intention. Data were obtained from surveys conducted with 384 consumers in Turkey. 7 Structural equation model (SEM) was used to analyze the data. According to the results, 8 62.5% of the consumers have information about foods with GI while 58.9% of the consumers 9 consume foods with GI. The SEM results indicated that food with GI perception had a 10 statistically significant and positive effect on the intention to purchase foods with GI. 11 Consumers want to buy geographically marked foods as they are “healthier”, “higher quality”, 12 and “more reliable”. Consumers have positive opinions about foods with GI, and are willing 13 to pay more for them. The fact consumer perceptions do not change is closely related to the 14 performance of products with GI. Monitoring the production processes of GI foods that are 15 more delicious, healthier, reliable, and ensuring the continuity in product quality will increase 16 the demand of consumers for geographically marked foods.

The emerging saffron value chain in the M’Zab valley – southern Algeria: an analysis of ongoing dynamics and strategic development options

The saffron growing has emerged over the last decade in Algeria and has diffused in different agroclimatic regions, especially in the M’Zab valley and its periphery in the Saharan region of the country. This study sets out to analyze the emerging saffron value chain in the M’Zab valley and suggests strategic options for strengthening its development. The analysis was based on a case study. The methodology applied the tools of value chain analysis in its positive and normative dimensions: a combination of qualitative and quantitative approaches based on the triangulation of data collection methods (interviews, secondary data collection, direct observations). A participatory approach was used to make a SWOT analysis and to propose strategies for developing the value chain. The results showed that the local saffron value chain has strengths (proftabilty and quality) and opportunities (growing demand of healthy and natural products), but its performance is limited by weaknesses (producers skills, marketing) and threats (Fraud or counterfeiting related to imported saffron) mainly related to the deficiencies in the institutional environment. Recommendations are made for elaborating a national saffron export strategy and building a competitive value chain able to take advantage of the expected growth in world demand.

Factors influencing technological innovation among agribusiness firms: A survey of small agricultural businesses in Ghana

Agricultural research in Ghana has resulted in a number of innovations targeted at increasing the productivity of small agricultural businesses. However, none of these studies has investigated the factors that influence the adoption of technological innovation in Ghanaian agriculture businesses. Hence, this study examine the factors that influence the adoption of technological innovation in Ghanaian agribusinesses. Structural equation modeling was used to examine data collected from 1526 agribusiness employees in Ghana using a convenience sampling technique and a questionnaire survey. The findings indicate that internal, and external factors have an impact on information and communication technology (ICT), and new materials and technology (NM & NT), but no or little impact on biotechnology (BT) respectively. Also, the study reveal that human capital factors have a substantial impact on ICT, BT, and NM & NT. Lastly, the findings show that ICT, BT, and NM & NT have a positive and significant impact on technological innovation. The study underscores the need for agribusinesses to focus on internal and human capital factors since they increase employees’ productivity and efficiency.

Consumers’ Food Safety Perceptions in Three Mediterranean Countries

The purpose of the study is to investigate and compare consumers’ food safety perceptions in three Mediterranean countries (Greece, Italy, and Spain). A survey was carried out based on a structured questionnaire focusing on food safety-related issues concerning food characteristics, the labeling of systems implemented by food companies such as the Quality Management System and the Food Safety Management System, consumer trust in the food supply chain, and consumer illusion of food control. Information was collected from individuals located in those three countries (2,664 respondents), which share common characteristics. The results indicate that there is a significant heterogeneity in consumers’ food safety perceptions in the three countries. The Spanish sample has the greatest level of trust in the supply chain in terms of food safety and the highest level of illusion of food control. The Italians evaluate the food characteristics and the QMS-FSMS’s labeling higher than the Spanish and the Greeks. This multinational study brings to light the different types of food safety concerns of consumers from three Mediterranean countries.

Farmers’ opinion about Syrian workers in agricultural sector in Turkey: Case study of Gaziantep

Due to the Syrian Civil War, many Syrians have had to flee their country and seek refuge in neighbouring countries, and they face a great deal of financial and social problems in their new countries of residence. Problems such as language barriers and hostility from the host community make it difficult for refugees to integrate into the countries which took them in, and the fact that they must become a part of the work force as a matter of priority to meet their daily needs means that they often work unskilled jobs for low wages and are not registered in any official systems. The structural properties of the agricultural sector means that it is one of the most popular work areas for Syrian migrants. This study aims to evaluate the circumstances of Syrian individuals under temporary protection status in Turkey in the agricultural sector from the perspective of farmers. To this end, a survey was conducted with 395 farmers working in the agricultural sector in the province of Gaziantep. According to the findings of the research, 61.5% of agricultural businesses in Gaziantep employ Syrian refugees. The main reason for farmers opting to employ Syrian workers under temporary protection order is low wages (78.8%). 82.9% of Syrian refugees work only during harvesting season. 92.4% work both harvesting and hoeing, while 79.2% of business owners state that employing refugees allows them to decreased their production costs. Despite the presence of legal regulations in Turkey outlining how refugees can become a part of the labour force, these haven’t prevented the prevalence of off-the-books employment. Making the necessary amendments to legal regulations regarding seasonal workers in the agricultural sector would benefit both local workers and Syrian refugees. Additionally, legislation regarding salaries would improve the living standards of refugee workers and increase their motivation to work, thus improve productivity in agricultural products.

Consumers’ perceptions and policy implications towards the future of the Organic Food Sector in Italy

Research on organic consumers’ preferences has been given a lot of attention in the past, analysing in detail the motives of organic food consumption across the World. Less attention has been paid to the expectations of consumers change in the context of growing complexities of sustainable agriculture. The main goal of this study is to explore how the ongoing changes of the organic sector are reflected in consumers’ perspectives of organic agriculture and their preferences for organic food quality. The study was conducted in Italy with the use of the Q-methodology with a Q-set of 44 statements and a P-set of 20 participants. Three main groups of consumers were identified: “Mainstreaming for the better good”, “Critical supporters looking for more”, “Organic intensification supporters”. Despite each ideal-typical group showing different perceptions of the future of the organic movement, they all shared similar policy implications. Three main topics of discussion emerged from the results of this study which are: the expectations of the consumers towards the future of the organic movement, the role of trust in purchasing behaviors and the importance of supporting rural development.

Zarazi table olives in Beni Khedache (Tunisia) highlighting an overlooked traditional product

Agricultural development in southern regions of Tunisia have often focused on a few very prominent products, such as dates and olive oil. Promoting traditional agricultural products in these regions could help foster a more resilient development trajectory. This study analyses the characteristics, development challenges and propects of Zarazi table olives in Beni Khedache (Medenine Governorate). This product is characterised by well-defined traditional production and processing practices. However, use of these olives is limited to home consumption due to a lack of market outlets. Local inhabitants and development actors have paid little attention to this product, but workshops with these actors have helped shed light on its potential, alongside discussions on possible actions to promote the development of a Zarazi table olive value chain.

International cooperation projects in support of entrepreneurship in southern Tunisia: activities and relations with public actors

In Tunisia, international cooperation projects in support of entrepreneurship boomed after the 2011 revolution. This paper analyses to what extent such projects have built the capacities of those involved in local entrepreneurial “ecosystems”. It analyses the main international cooperation projects supporting entrepreneurship in the Kebili and Medenine governorates (southern Tunisia) between 2011 and 2020. The activities of these projects were mapped and two workshops were conducted with actors of the local entrepreneurial ecosystems to discuss their implementation.
Fourteen international cooperation projects were identified. These projects mostly focused on increasing the number of enterprises created, e.g., by supporting training, networking and sometimes funding. However, only one project provided support after creation of businesses, and few promoted a culture of entrepreneurship. Overall, these projects generally based their actions on the existing ecosystem of public actors in charge of supporting entrepreneurship. They made limited attempts to build the capacities of those actors, evaluate the functioning of local entrepreneurial ecosystems and coordinate among themselves.

Pluralizing the oasis extensions: Heterogeneous farming profiles and practices in Toudgha (Morocco)

Oases in North Africa have undergone significant change over the past 30 years, contributing to the emergence of new issues and practices. Irrigated farms are increasingly developing outside of historical oases, in lands previously reserved for extensive livestock. This article is a contribution to the knowledge of these issues in the Toudgha Valley in south-eastern Morocco. Its objective is to analyse the heterogeneity of these expanding farms without limiting the issues to a model of land grabbing by large investors. Based on a qualitative survey of 49 farms, our results show that there are three types of farms. The first is a small farms where people move to look for housing and new work opportunities at other farms. The second is a medium farms where farmers seek to reproduce three-layered crop production and have more land than in historical oases. The last type is a large farms where investors settle and intensify their production. This typology, far from being fixed, allows us to reflect on the dynamics of these extensions.

Farm Size and Productivity in Algerian Agriculture: A Contingent Relationship

The purpose of this paper is to analyze the relationship between farm size and farm performance in Algeria. Unlike most previous studies, this preliminary study uses a large dataset comprising 26 735 farmers in Biskra region. Two farming sectors are considered, namely: date palm sector (typically a traditional farming sector) and greenhouse vegetables sector (relatively a modernizing sector). The study employs two farm performance measures, farmland productivity (farm output per hectare) and land use intensity. A bivariate non-parametric regression (Nadaraya-Watson approach) and multivariate quantile regression are used to assess the IR in two farming sectors. The main findings show that the IR holds for a traditional agriculture and does not in a modernizing one. Then, when it holds, it follows a systematically monotonic smooth pattern, whereas in a highly input-intense modern sector, the relationship becomes, in the best cases, blurry. The consideration of the nature of the used technology in the underlying sector (i.e., its stage of development) is of crucial importance as a contingency factor in analyzing the IR for any farming system ignored in most studies.

Do Livestock Supports Increase Livestock Production? Province Based Panel ARDL Analysis for Turkey Example

In recent years, there has been a significant change in Turkey’s agricultural support policies, especially on livestock supports. The livestock support, with a share less than 5% in total has in early 2000s has reached up to 35% at the end of 2020. In order to understand the impact of increase in livestock supports, 11 years of livestock support and livestock presence in 81 provinces in Turkey were analyzed via Panel ARDL method. The results of the analysis revealed that support to livestock does not affect the number of livestock in the short term, but has a positive effect in the long run. Furthermore, both in the short and long term, the increase in prices in the livestock sector increases the livestock fund. Eventhough increases in feed prices harm livestock presence in short run as expected, this negative effect disappears in the long run. The production effect of minimum wage variable is added to the model considering the unique situation of Turkey, which effects the production negative in the short run, but positive in the long run.

Local partnerships for the development of coastal regions: a review of Fisheries Local Action Groups with focus on the Mediterranean

In the last programming period of the European Maritime Fisheries Fund, Fisheries Local Action Groups (FLAGs) have been in charge of meeting the objectives of Union Priority 4, aimed at boosting territorial cohesion and employment in European coastal areas. These local partnerships have hence received support for the elaboration of local development strategies that should promote both territorial and sectorial projects, balancing the interests of the different stakeholders involved. This article provides for a literature review of the scientific contributions on FLAGs, organizing the main findings according to the six dimensions of the Porter’s Diamond Model in the context of the cluster analysis on coastal communities’ competitiveness. Moreover, by focusing on FLAGs from Italy, Spain and France, the paper discusses the orientation towards sectoral and territorial interests in the Mediterranean. It emerges that while the literature has mostly emphasized their territorial functions, FLAGs- especially those in areas with relatively higher incidence of employment in fisheries-related sectors- have prioritized projects of sectorial scope.