Smallholder farmers’ perceptions and adaptation strategies to mitigate the effect of climate change in the oases of South-Eastern Tunisia

Abstract

Climate change is expected to have serious environmental, economic, and social impacts on arid regions such as Tunisia country. This research uses a “bottom-up” approach, which seeks to gain insights from the farmers themselves based on a farm household in the south-east of Tunisia. Econometric analyses and Main Component analysis was conducted in this research. Finally, probit binary models were estimated to determine the factors influencing adaptation strategies. All actions aimed at improving the resilience of agriculture in Tunisia’s arid regions to climate change, emphasize mainly the strategies adopted by farmers in terms of water management, technical choices and the adopted production systems combined with the experience and local know-how. Others Government policies and national adaptation programs should focus on education facilitate farmers’ access to extension, information and specialized training needed.

Role of Rural Women in Organic Farming: A Case Study From Turkey

Abstract

In this study, it was aimed to determine the participation tendencies in organic agriculture activities of women living in rural areas of the northwestern part of Turkey. The data were collected from 183 rural women by simple random sampling method. The survey was conducted from March to May 2020. The data were evaluated by descriptive statistics, a participation index score and multiple regression analysis. According to the results of the participation index score, rural women’s participation of in organic farming activities was highest in the fertilizer application stage and the least in the marketing stage. The results of multiple regression analysis showed that there was a statistically significant relationship between the participation level of rural women in organic farming activities and socio-economic characteristics (age, education level, household size, organic farming experience, household income, agricultural land asset and participation in agricultural training programs). As a result, the findings of the study are expected to make significant contributions to rural development, province economy and further emphasizing the importance of rural women in organic farming activities.

Facteurs affectant les stratégies d’adaptation des éleveurs aux changements climatiques: cas des parcours d’El Ouara au Sud Tunisien

Abstract

Climate change is a global environmental threat to all economic activities, especially the livestock activity. The South of Tunisia, where animal husbandry is a fundamental element of the domestic economy, is more influenced by these negatives effects due to the arid climate. The objective of this study is to identify strategies and levers mitigation and adaptation to climate change developed by breeders on based on available factors. For this purpose, a survey conducted among 73 breeders on the rangelands of El Ouara, in the South of Tunisia. Results emerges that breeders use various adaptation strategies principally, supplementation, integration agriculture-livestock and conduct’s mode through different types such as association. The result of the model reveal that age of breeder, herd size, agricultural area, member of an association, subsidies and well ownerships are the most factors which significantly influence the adaptation choices of breeders to cope to climate change. The results proved too that adaptation to climate change was inhibited by many factors such as luck of workforce labor, lack of water and financial resources as well the degradation of the rangelands.

Dimensions of Household Food Waste in Turkey

Abstract

Food waste creates an increasing concern at the global level and searching methods how to solve food waste is also a significantly increasing. Finding adequate solutions and implementing is only possible through defining the problem. To solve a complicated problem like food waste which interests large population and has different kind of features for each product is a time consuming. At this point, revealing food waste at the different stages is important. The biggest share from the waste is taken by households. This study covers the analyses results of the surveys conducted in 3 big cities in different geographic region in order to identify household food waste’s level in Turkey. Totally 1155 surveys were conducted in Erzurum, ?zmir and Adana in June 2016 and 2017. In addition to food waste, its perception, food purchase and store behaviors of the consumers were investigated. The results show that households wasted about 7.5 tones food during the month surveys carried out. Only 180 families out of 1155 had no food waste and this number is higher in Erzurum. The highest food waste was observed in Adana where it was 823 kg per week while it was 652 kg in Erzurum and 393 kg in ?zmir.

Do future markets protect the spot markets in developing countries? The case of the Egyptian wheat market

Abstract

Egypt is considered a net wheat importer, with the Egyptian market being vulnerable to future wheat markets because of the effect future market price discovery can have on the stability of spot prices. This study assesses the relationship between Egyptian wheat spot prices and future wheat prices in Paris (MATIF) and USA (CBOT). Markov switching-vector error correction methods are used to estimate two regimes by splitting the sample into high and low volatility regimes. This study also examines the dynamic conditional correlation between the prices considered using the asymmetric DCC-GARCH. Results suggest a high volatility regime observed, especially during the extreme market events of the food crisis in 2007-08 and 2010 and following the two revolutions in Egypt in 2011 and 2013 and the time of the economic reform in 2016. This leads to an unstable market and negative impacts on consumers’ welfare and food affordability, meaning that futures markets failed to hedge spot wheat market against price volatility. In addition, results from impulse response functions indicate that a 1% shock in futures markets will lead to a positive shock in the wheat spot market, while for the low volatility regime no significant effect.

Youth’s potential of adopting the Mediterranean diet lifestyle in response to climate change Empirical study in Crete, Greece

Abstract

The Mediterranean diet is considered one of the healthier and most balanced dietary models currently in existence. Different studies suggest that it is environmentally friendly: it combines low greenhouse gas emissions, low demand of soil water and less deforestation. Climate change can be mitigated through what consumers decide to eat. This article addresses the issue of by studying the intention of young consumers to shift their diets towards the Mediterranean Diet to prevent climate change through face interviews, collected in Crete, Greece (N=287). Using the Theory of Planned Behavior, the objective is to identify whether attitudes, subjective norms and perceived behavioral control guide such a behavior. Our findings highlight that young consumers’ perceived behavioral control have the highest influence on the intention, followed by their attitudes. As for the subjective norms, it has no significant impact on the intention

Understanding Farmers’ Intentions to Adopt Organic Farming in Albania

Abstract

Organic agriculture in Europe is expanding, yet is still in the early stages in less developed areas of Europe. Understanding the factors of converting to organic agriculture is a key component for both policy design and attaining effective support for the organic sector from the government, donors, or the private sector. Therefore, the study attempts to explore the determinant factors of farmers’ intentions to engage in organic farming based on primary data collected through a farm survey in Albania. Results show that subjective norms, perceived behavior control, favorable attitudes toward organic farming conversion, as well as awareness of risk from conventional farming accompanied with information awareness are positively associated with the probability of converting to organic farming. Farmers’ perceptions of EU policy opportunities and attitudes towards environment protection are negatively associated with farmers’ tendency to convert. The study findings call for the use of financial and non-financial policy instruments for supporting conversion to organic farming and increased information on opportunities and costs expected from the integration into the EU single market.

Towards food systems transformation in the Mediterranean region: Unleashing the power of data, policy, investment and innovation

There is an abundance of actions that could positively change the way food systems operate in the Mediterranean region. However, the uptake of these actions at local level has proven to be slow and often limited in their scope and impact. Considering the diverse nature of agri-food systems challenges in the region, trade-offs in interventions and the diversity of stakeholders, a radical shift from focusing on top-down, global solutions for sustainable food systems, to adapting demand driven, country-led actions is required. This review uses a food systems lens to identify four levers which are essential to “enable” and accelerate the adoption of game changing solutions to food systems challenges by local actors in the Mediterranean region. These are namely: 1) Multi-stakeholder collaboration; 2) Data and evidence; 3) Technological innovation; and 4) Coherent policies and investment. We recognize that each of these enablers is a powerful mean of change, but the evidence suggests that a sustainable and inclusive transformation is only possible when they are deployed together in an integrated and inten-tional way. Results of this review outline some of the barriers to unlocking the potential of enablers and provide insights on how to use their power to transform Mediterranean food systems.