To what extend corruption and free-riding behavior affect technical and Water Use efficiencies of small scale irrigated farms.

Abstract

This paper examines irrigation management within the Tunisian Water Users Association (WUA),in Nadhour public irrigated area (central of Tunisia). The functioning of 14 WUAs was evaluated based on questionnaires and related interviews. The methodology of this study consists of two main steps; (i) an estimation of technical efficiency scores of 90 smallholder farmers and the sub-vector of WUE (Water Use efficiency) using the non-parametric DEA model, (ii) a regression of a Tobit model to test the hypothesis regarding explanatory variables of differentiated technical efficiency scores. The investigation shows an average technical efficiency of 70.8% and WUE of 64.8%. It highlighted the Water turn, the infrastructure state, the water supply shortage, corruption, and free-riding behaviors as tightly correlated factors with farm’s productivity. This suggests that there is potential to improve production efficiency by implementing targeted programs and rules for inefficient farmers. The findings of this study show that it is important to fight corruption in the water sector by an increased government oversight, reform of regulations, and increased accountability

Will agriculture beat the odds against Covid-19? The Covid-19 outbreak and its effect on agricultural supply in Turkey.

Abstract

The new coronavirus (Covid-19), which spread almost the entire world, adversely affected many sectors, both internationally and 30 locally. Households’ panic purchase have rocketed the demand for some food items in the early days. Besides, food safety 31 concerns have increased. This research aimed to uncover how the public perceived the impact of Covid-19 on the agriculture and 32 food sector. The online survey was conducted, and the data from 428 participants were analysed using the SPSS (v.23) program. 33 The third of respondents (30.8%) believed the outbreak would last between six months to one year, during which time food 34 shortages will occur (32.5%). While 27.4% of the respondents reported that they stockpiled food, 44.8% reported that if the 35 outbreak continued, they would stock up on food. Participants were concerned that if planting cannot be done, food shortages will 36 occur (74.6%), basic foodstuffs cannot be produced (67.8%), food imports (69.4%) and exports (74.6%) will be adversely 37 affected by the outbreak. The research found that if farming disturbed, food prices would increase (82.3%) and the government 38 should include agriculture-supporting measures (85%) in its economic measures.

Potential socio-economic impact of Xylella fastidiosa in the Near East and North Africa (NENA): risk of introduction and spread, risk perception and socio-economic effects

Abstract

The serious damages of Xylella fastidiosa (Xf) in Euro-Mediterranean countries (Italy, France, Spain) raise concerns for the Near East and North Africa (NENA). Therefore, a study was performed to: a) assess the risk of Xf entry, establishment and spread in target NENA countries (viz. Algeria, Egypt, Jordan, Lebanon, Libya, Morocco, Palestine, Syria, Tunisia); b) analyse risk perception and preparedness level among agri-food chain stakeholders; c) estimate potential socio-economic impacts for olives, grapes and citrus. Pest risk appraisal suggests that Morocco, Lebanon, Palestine and Syria are the most exposed to Xf risk; other target NENA countries, except Algeria, have intermediate risk. Risk perception analysis shows that governance efficacy and practices application can be improved by involving stakeholders and raising their awareness. Socio-economic impact assessment indicates declining yields, production, profitability, export, employment, and increasing import, with the highest impacts relating to olives, then citrus and grapes. The study suggests that the expected socioeconomic impacts are unacceptable and require urgent action against Xf at national and regional levels.

Food security and European migrant crisis: Case of Mediterranean area

Abstract

This paper focuses on a possible connection between food security and the migrant crisis that began in 2015, which had a tremendous impact on the European Union as well as on the Mediterranean area. The goal of this paper is to determine if there is a correlation between the number of migrants and the levels of food security in both their homeland countries and destination countries. The Promethee method was used to attempt to answer this question. Unfortunately, the analysis is limited due to lack of data for certain countries concerning food security caused by current poor political situations. Nevertheless, the results showed that the best-ranked countries by food security are mostly EU countries. These countries do not have issues with food security, especially in comparison to countries in the Middle East. Also, countries with a high level of food security and political stability have the highest influx of migrants, which suggests there is also an economic motivation for migration. Finally, the analysis confirmed a strong correlation between countries’ achieved level of food security and the number of migrants.

Policy Reforms in Agriculture and Farmer’s Income Diversification Decision: The Case of Eggs Farms

Abstract

Reforms in agriculture have become an integral part in policymaker’s agenda. Research on past reforms in various sectors showed their effect on farmer’s decision making regarding the continuum of farm work. This research objective is to expand and predict implications of emerging policy reforms on eggs branch farmers economics’ viability. The theory presented here aims to analyze the farmer’s decision
making on income diversification by accounting for socio-demographics, wealth, and peripherality. The study of income diversification that is presented here can throw light on how risky the reforms are for farmers that their income is exclusively based on agriculture. Logistic regression and classification tree were employed in analyzing a sample of eggs producers in Israeli’s periphery. The main findings signify that the younger, educated, and wealthier farmers who are more peripheral, prone towards diversifying income. Policymakers should acknowledge this variability in potential risks while designing agricultural reforms.

Enjeux, pratiques et contraintes pour une mise en valeur agroécologique des terres au Sahara. Cas d’un périmètre péri-oasien dans la Vallée du M’Zab (Algérie).

Abstract

This article analyzes the adoption of practices face to the ecological and social issues and the constraints perception to agroecological development in the M’Zab Valley. The socioecological approach shows that the current agrosystem is “hybrid”, under the influence of the old oasis model, symbol of ecological balance, and of the conventional model, vector of both a dynamic of innovations and threats on agricultural sustainability. However, the institutional environment is perceived to be very restrictive. The application of multinomial logistic regression to explain the practices adoption and the constraints perception brings out the socio-demographic characteristics (level of education, age, pluriactivity, link with environmental association) which have a positive effect on agroecological practices; the productions (vegetables and breeding) whose effect is ambivalent; and social categories (low level of education, mono-activity, sheep and goat farming) who perceive the institutional environment rather very restrictive to the development of agroecology.

Climate Change Perceptions and Adaptations for Dairy Cattle Farmers in Jordan: Case Study in North East Region -Al-Dhulel Area

Abstract

This study was designed to investigate how dairy farmers of AL-Dhulel cooperative Dairy Society (ACDS) perceive climate change, the adaptation strategies adopted by farmers to cope with the impact of climate change and the barriers to the adoption of these strategies. A 92 dairy farmers provided with a questionnaire that was developed to collect the data and covered farmers perception, adaptation strategies, and the barriers facing them towards adopting the strategies. The personal interviews with the farmers were performed during early January, 2020. The data was analyzed using the Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS). The main result obtained from the study that most of dairy farmers were aware of the climate change impact on dairy cattle performance and health. Furthermore, the adaptation strategies that was suggested has limiting factors according to farmers as a result of governmental and agricultural institutions restriction polices. Therefore, recommendations regarding new polices was suggested to facilitate the way of getting benefit from grants and financial support for improving dairy farms and to mitigate the effect of climate change on dairy cattle.

Évaluation de la rentabilité et de la productivité totale des facteurs de production des exploitations céréalières : cas de la culture du blé dur au Nord de la Tunisie

Abstract

The main objectives of this paper are to assess the production costs and to measure the total factor productivity (TFP) of durum wheat production for a sample of cereal farmers in the North of Tunisia. Our hypothesis is that improvement of these indicators can reduce the production costs and consequently the improvement of producers’ incomes. To test this hypothesis, a survey was carried out with 232 cereal farms in the subhumid region in the North of Tunisia cultivating durum wheat. The reconstituted costs approach was used to estimate the production costs. The results obtained show that total costs, production costs and net margins of durum wheat vary according to the farm size. About 67% of surveyed farms make a positive net margin. The empirical results of the regression reveal that productivity is negatively affected by the farm size, the new varieties demanding water and the investments made by the farm while it is affected positively by crop rotations

Quel avenir pour la filière huile d’olive fraichement introduite dans une zone steppique ? Cas de la région de M’Sila

Abstract

In the region of M’Sila, a steppe zone and characteristic of a dominant agro-pastoral framework, the local olive sector has certainly grown in terms of area expansion, but the information available indicates that its future in terms of performance is dependent on a series of internal and external factors. The aim of this article is to highlight the main explanatory variables by analyzing the strengths and weaknesses of the sector, the opportunities and threats linked to its environment. Two methods are used: the first, SWOT, constitutes a structured diagnostic framework and a universal decision-support tool. The second, the causality analysis, according to the Parmenides EIDOS tool, makes it possible to obtain a hierarchy of relations in the sector based on the opinions of the intervening actors. The data used come from the bibliographic summary of a series of studies and the results of a survey carried out in 2017 in the field. The results obtained show that the internal factors are linked to the characteristics of the farms, to the production systems, and to the surrounding conditions of the value chain. External factors are linked to the dynamics of national and global markets.

Structural characteristics of the agricultural sector in terms of access to agricultural credits in Turkey

Structural characteristics of the agricultural sector in terms of access to agricultural credits in Turkey

New Medit, vol 16, n.4, (December 2017), pp. 66-72

Language: EN
Jel classification: E60, Q14

The purpose of this study is to determine the credit needs and analyse the structural effects o loans with a view to contributing to develop strategies with banks, cooperatives and all other institutions and organizations involved in agricultural credit. The master data was processed using the primary data obtained from 2,029,116 farms. Farmers are registered with the Farmer Registration System and 640 are registered with the Farmer Accounting Data Network. Farms were classified based on farm type and cropping system. Results showed that the education level of farmers is low and household size is high, farm holdings are small and fragmented and there is an imbalance in land distribution. These characteristics affect negatively the utilisation of credit, although 56% of farmers utilise credits and the equity ratio is very high (97.3%). The new regulations on the Inheritance Law will help both increase farmland and solve the problem of fragmentation in Turkey. The institutions and organizations concerned should satisfy this demand taking into account the specific characteristics of the sector (by facilitating utilisation of credit, supporting small businesses and providing additional loan opportunities, renewing machine fleet and regulations on land acquisition) in order to contribute to its advancement.

Turkey, structural development, agricultural credits

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