An econometric analysis for food security in Tunisia

Abstract

Food security issue is getting more attention in middle-income countries such as Tunisia after the revolution 2011, where many factors affecting its food security are multiplied. An econometric analysis of food security was done through the Vector Error Correction Model approach (VECM). The result of this approach shows that there is a significant long-term causality between the dependent variables and the explanatory variables. Some signs of variables like land under cereals assert the hypothesis of Ricardo’s land rent theory and also attract attention for the preservation of land fertility in climate change context. However, there is a short-term causal relationship between food security and independents variables like: land under cereals, inflation and food imports. These results confirm that the issue of food security in Tunisia is a question of threat in the short and long-term instability. So, it is important today to readjust some factors to ensure food security in Tunisia like controlling inflation and lowering the food importation as short-term measures and preserving and improving the fertility of land under cereals and adopting climate change as long-term measures.

Natural Resources Revenues, Agriculture Development and Urbanization in African Countries

Abstract

This paper analyzes the mechanism through which natural resource abundance leads to a poor agricultural performance and a rapid urbanization in African countries. We conducted a static and dynamic panel data analysis for a panel of 39 African countries during the period 2000-2013. Our findings show that natural resources rents have a negative impact on agricultural performance and a positive impact on food import dependency. In addition, the results show a significant positive impact of resource rents on rural-urban migration and on urbanization rate. We argue that these findings can be explained by the government choice to specialize in primary commodities to the detriment of the development of other productive sectors, especially agriculture. Because policy makers tend to invest resources rents in developing infrastructures, mostly in cities, this inevitably creates some pulling factors for rural population in search of a better life. Consequently, we observe a rapid urbanization associated with serious problems (Expansion of urban slums, limited access to improved water and sanitations facilities) in many African countries, highly dependent on natural resource rents.

 

Disparités régionales et développement local au Sud tunisien

Abstract

Sustainable development is regarded today as a goal which has to be reached by all countries. Therefore cooperation for development is more than ever necessary to face the global challenges such as poverty, human health, food crisis etc. This work aims to study the regional disparity that may exist between provinces in the south of tunisia. To this end, a data analysis applied to a set of regional development indicators using the principal components analysis method (ACP) was conducted.

Optimisation des Réseaux de Distribution des Produits Agroalimentaires: Modélisation et Application

Abstract

A certain number of factors can affect the functioning of the distribution chains of large agrifood companies and impact their efficiency. Among them, poor adaptation to fluctuations in demand, imperfect control of production and transport costs and poor location of distribution centers. These dysfunctions can have negative consequences with high product prices, supply disruptions and customer dissatisfaction. The company is therefore required to review regularly the distribution plan for its products in order to optimize it: addition, deletion, relocation, reassignment of warehouses, delivery centers, etc. We propose, through a case study of the agro-food group Cevital (Algeria), a solution to the problem of restructuring supply and distribution networks, at a stage of development of this company. Using an operational research tool (mixed-integer linear programming), the study assesses four scenarios for structuring the company’s distribution network and suggests, for decision-making purposes, strategic solutions for managers.

INFORMATION AND COMMUNICATION TECHNOLOGIES AS DEVELOPMENT TOOLS FOR SECOND-TIER COOPERATIVES

Abstract

The Spanish olive oil sector is the world leader in terms of olive oil production. This sector primarily comprises companies in the social economy, especially cooperatives, which account for more than 75% of production. The emergence of second-tier cooperatives has enabled the implementation of one of the recurring recommendations by scholars, namely enhancing the commercialization of olive oil through greater concentration and integration of supply. This improved commercialization is made possible in part by the greater capacity of these companies to invest in information and communication technologies (ICTs) and human capital specialized in managing these ICTs. The use of the Internet gives these companies access to a market of unparalleled dimensions. In light of this situation, this study examines the factors that explain a higher level of online sales activity by these firms. To do so, fuzzy-set qualitative comparative analysis (fsQCA) is used. The results show that age, size, the management’s ICT training, social network activity, and outsourced ICT management are associated with greater online sales of olive oil by second-tier cooperatives.

TECHNICAL EFFICIENCY OF ARABLE FARMS IN SERBIA: DO SUBSIDIES MATTER?

Abstract

This paper analyses the technical efficiency of arable farms in Serbia and its determinants using a two-stage double bootstrap Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA) approach on the Farm Accountancy Data Network (FADN) data from 2014 and 2015 with special emphasis on the impact of agricultural subsidies on the technical efficiency of arable farms in Serbia. Bias-corrected DEA efficiency scores were first calculated and then regressed on a set of explanatory variables using the double-truncated regression approach. The estimates suggest that the share of rented land, land to labour ratio and financial stress variables are the main determinants of arable farm efficiency in Serbia. For the subsidies we found that area payments and input subsidies have some impacts on the technical efficiency of arable farms. In contrast, investment and other subsidies were found to have an insignificant impact on farm technical efficiency. These results suggest that the future potential shift of the Serbian agricultural support towards the Common Agricultural Policy (CAP)-like area based payments is expected to have a minimal but likely positive impact on farms technical efficiency in Serbia.

Innovation ecosystems for youth agrifood entrepreneurship in the Mediterraneanregion

Abstract

This paper is the outcome of a reflection on the MIP report 2020, a collection of information and data used to describe the scenario on youth innovation and entrepreneurship in agrifood sector in Mediterranean countries. In particular, it highlights the need to study innovation in Mediterranean regions under the lens of social and institutional innovation. It is argued that social and institutional innovation are key drivers of the development of Innovation Ecosystems. The paper discusses the main findings – and relevant case studies – of the MIP report, with a specific attention to the role of the Innovation Support Organizations. It is noted that while in the field of institutional innovation there are signs of official activity, in the field of social innovation there is no or very limited attempt to embody social innovation into national policy frameworks. However, the article identifies interesting bottom-up initiatives that may constitute the basis for new policy initiatives.

 A research on the opinions and suggestions of the youth who study agriculture in Turkey on the Young Farmer Grant Project 

Abstract

The agricultural population in Turkey declines year by year due to rural-urban migration and, consequently, the number of young farmers is on the decrease in Turkey, like in some developed countries. The Young Farmer Grant Project was launched for encouraging young people in rural areas in 2016. This study was conducted to determine the tendency of the youth who study agriculture to invest in agriculture and their opinions and suggestions on the Young Farmer Grant Project. Data was collected by the survey from 480 students who studied agriculture at Ege University and Kocaeli University. Five-point Likert scale was used to determine the opinions, tendencies and expectations of the students. At this stage, chi-square tests and analysis of variance were also applied. Logistical regression was performed for determining of factors affecting the probability of students benefiting from the Young Farmer Grant Project. According to results of logistical regression, age, the situation of being a farmer in the family and having a family-owned farmland positively affect the probability of students benefiting from the Young Farmer Grant Project.

Consumer preferences and purchasing rationales for wine: a multivariate data analysis

Abstract

The wine market is very heterogeneous and complex, being the knowledge of the behaviour and attitudes of consumers a key tool to design efficient marketing plans, namely in countries that are traditionally wine producers and consumers, such as Portugal. In this country, Port wine is an economic and cultural icon, but, in the last decade, total sales have been decreasing. Despite this trend the domestic consumption has been gaining relevance and therefore a focus to reverse the negative cycle of total sales. The main goal of this paper is to analyse the profile and behaviour of domestic Port wine consumers, identifying homogeneous market segments. For this purpose, an online survey was applied and random sample of 678 Portuguese Port wine consumers was collected. Using multivariate statistical techniques, three profiles of purchasers/consumers emerged: experienced, less experienced and inexperienced consumers. This segmentation shows that Port wine consumers can be grouped according to their involvement with the product, consumption occasion and price they are willing to pay. In addition to the academic contribution of wine market segmentation, the paper provides useful insights to be used in designing marketing plans, both by institutional stakeholders and wineries.

Notes (Vol. 19 N. 4 – 2020)

The COVID-19 pandemic has had a wide impact on our lives (Hakovirta and Denuwara, 2020) and is going to have further direct and indirect impacts on our ‘common home’. Besides justified renewed attention to human health and to reinforce the sanitary systems, reasonable worries are developing around the impact of the pandemic on food systems1 and on possible solutions to be enacted for counteracting the effect of present and future emergencies and ensuring access to food to human population worldwide. After 2007-08 and 2010-11 economic crises, our globalized economic system has been once again set on the edge of a deep crisis. In this context, a debate is arising on the main factors at the base of the spread of pandemics and misleading concepts/interpretations are more and more at the centre of media attention. Such misleading information could drive current mainstream opinion in a direction that can further impair the natural capital, increasing risk for new pandemic outbreaks and further ingenerating unbalance in food access.

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