The global distribution of grain resources is uneven, and this paper analyzes the evolution of the global trade network of wheat, corn and rice from 2012 to 2021, based on the complex network . At the same time, a global grain trade supply risk assessment index system was established to assess the supply risk of the main import trade countries of wheat, corn and rice in 2021, and the following conclusions were obtained. The trade relationships of corn was the most dense, and the trade connectivity between countries was the highest, while the trade group differentiation of rice was the highest, and the trade group characteristics were more prominent. Canada, America, Australia, Russia, Argentina, Ukraine, Brazil, India and China were the major grain export countries. Italy, America, France, Germany, the Netherlands and South Africa occupied the important positions in the global grain trade network. The supply risk of wheat trade gradually increased with the import volume from high to low. The supply risk of rice was higher than that of wheat and corn as a whole, and the high risk was mainly concentrated in countries with high import trade.