Due to the Syrian Civil War, many Syrians have had to flee their country and seek refuge in neighbouring countries, and they face a great deal of financial and social problems in their new countries of residence. Problems such as language barriers and hostility from the host community make it difficult for refugees to integrate into the countries which took them in, and the fact that they must become a part of the work force as a matter of priority to meet their daily needs means that they often work unskilled jobs for low wages and are not registered in any official systems. The structural properties of the agricultural sector means that it is one of the most popular work areas for Syrian migrants. This study aims to evaluate the circumstances of Syrian individuals under temporary protection status in Turkey in the agricultural sector from the perspective of farmers. To this end, a survey was conducted with 395 farmers working in the agricultural sector in the province of Gaziantep. According to the findings of the research, 61.5% of agricultural businesses in Gaziantep employ Syrian refugees. The main reason for farmers opting to employ Syrian workers under temporary protection order is low wages (78.8%). 82.9% of Syrian refugees work only during harvesting season. 92.4% work both harvesting and hoeing, while 79.2% of business owners state that employing refugees allows them to decreased their production costs. Despite the presence of legal regulations in Turkey outlining how refugees can become a part of the labour force, these haven’t prevented the prevalence of off-the-books employment. Making the necessary amendments to legal regulations regarding seasonal workers in the agricultural sector would benefit both local workers and Syrian refugees. Additionally, legislation regarding salaries would improve the living standards of refugee workers and increase their motivation to work, thus improve productivity in agricultural products.
Research on organic consumers’ preferences has been given a lot of attention in the past, analysing in detail the motives of organic food consumption across the World. Less attention has been paid to the expectations of consumers change in the context of growing complexities of sustainable agriculture. The main goal of this study is to explore how the ongoing changes of the organic sector are reflected in consumers’ perspectives of organic agriculture and their preferences for organic food quality. The study was conducted in Italy with the use of the Q-methodology with a Q-set of 44 statements and a P-set of 20 participants. Three main groups of consumers were identified: “Mainstreaming for the better good”, “Critical supporters looking for more”, “Organic intensification supporters”. Despite each ideal-typical group showing different perceptions of the future of the organic movement, they all shared similar policy implications. Three main topics of discussion emerged from the results of this study which are: the expectations of the consumers towards the future of the organic movement, the role of trust in purchasing behaviors and the importance of supporting rural development.
Agricultural development in southern regions of Tunisia have often focused on a few very prominent products, such as dates and olive oil. Promoting traditional agricultural products in these regions could help foster a more resilient development trajectory. This study analyses the characteristics, development challenges and propects of Zarazi table olives in Beni Khedache (Medenine Governorate). This product is characterised by well-defined traditional production and processing practices. However, use of these olives is limited to home consumption due to a lack of market outlets. Local inhabitants and development actors have paid little attention to this product, but workshops with these actors have helped shed light on its potential, alongside discussions on possible actions to promote the development of a Zarazi table olive value chain.
In Tunisia, international cooperation projects in support of entrepreneurship boomed after the 2011 revolution. This paper analyses to what extent such projects have built the capacities of those involved in local entrepreneurial “ecosystems”. It analyses the main international cooperation projects supporting entrepreneurship in the Kebili and Medenine governorates (southern Tunisia) between 2011 and 2020. The activities of these projects were mapped and two workshops were conducted with actors of the local entrepreneurial ecosystems to discuss their implementation.
Fourteen international cooperation projects were identified. These projects mostly focused on increasing the number of enterprises created, e.g., by supporting training, networking and sometimes funding. However, only one project provided support after creation of businesses, and few promoted a culture of entrepreneurship. Overall, these projects generally based their actions on the existing ecosystem of public actors in charge of supporting entrepreneurship. They made limited attempts to build the capacities of those actors, evaluate the functioning of local entrepreneurial ecosystems and coordinate among themselves.
Oases in North Africa have undergone significant change over the past 30 years, contributing to the emergence of new issues and practices. Irrigated farms are increasingly developing outside of historical oases, in lands previously reserved for extensive livestock. This article is a contribution to the knowledge of these issues in the Toudgha Valley in south-eastern Morocco. Its objective is to analyse the heterogeneity of these expanding farms without limiting the issues to a model of land grabbing by large investors. Based on a qualitative survey of 49 farms, our results show that there are three types of farms. The first is a small farms where people move to look for housing and new work opportunities at other farms. The second is a medium farms where farmers seek to reproduce three-layered crop production and have more land than in historical oases. The last type is a large farms where investors settle and intensify their production. This typology, far from being fixed, allows us to reflect on the dynamics of these extensions.
The purpose of this paper is to analyze the relationship between farm size and farm performance in Algeria. Unlike most previous studies, this preliminary study uses a large dataset comprising 26 735 farmers in Biskra region. Two farming sectors are considered, namely: date palm sector (typically a traditional farming sector) and greenhouse vegetables sector (relatively a modernizing sector). The study employs two farm performance measures, farmland productivity (farm output per hectare) and land use intensity. A bivariate non-parametric regression (Nadaraya-Watson approach) and multivariate quantile regression are used to assess the IR in two farming sectors. The main findings show that the IR holds for a traditional agriculture and does not in a modernizing one. Then, when it holds, it follows a systematically monotonic smooth pattern, whereas in a highly input-intense modern sector, the relationship becomes, in the best cases, blurry. The consideration of the nature of the used technology in the underlying sector (i.e., its stage of development) is of crucial importance as a contingency factor in analyzing the IR for any farming system ignored in most studies.
In recent years, there has been a significant change in Turkey’s agricultural support policies, especially on livestock supports. The livestock support, with a share less than 5% in total has in early 2000s has reached up to 35% at the end of 2020. In order to understand the impact of increase in livestock supports, 11 years of livestock support and livestock presence in 81 provinces in Turkey were analyzed via Panel ARDL method. The results of the analysis revealed that support to livestock does not affect the number of livestock in the short term, but has a positive effect in the long run. Furthermore, both in the short and long term, the increase in prices in the livestock sector increases the livestock fund. Eventhough increases in feed prices harm livestock presence in short run as expected, this negative effect disappears in the long run. The production effect of minimum wage variable is added to the model considering the unique situation of Turkey, which effects the production negative in the short run, but positive in the long run.
In the last programming period of the European Maritime Fisheries Fund, Fisheries Local Action Groups (FLAGs) have been in charge of meeting the objectives of Union Priority 4, aimed at boosting territorial cohesion and employment in European coastal areas. These local partnerships have hence received support for the elaboration of local development strategies that should promote both territorial and sectorial projects, balancing the interests of the different stakeholders involved. This article provides for a literature review of the scientific contributions on FLAGs, organizing the main findings according to the six dimensions of the Porter’s Diamond Model in the context of the cluster analysis on coastal communities’ competitiveness. Moreover, by focusing on FLAGs from Italy, Spain and France, the paper discusses the orientation towards sectoral and territorial interests in the Mediterranean. It emerges that while the literature has mostly emphasized their territorial functions, FLAGs- especially those in areas with relatively higher incidence of employment in fisheries-related sectors- have prioritized projects of sectorial scope.
The study focuses on dairy cattle farming systems and the sources of innovation for breeders in the Setif and Souk-Ahras dairy basins recognized by cereals, dairy cattle breeding and irrigated crops. A sample of 140 family farms was selected and surveyed between 2017 and 2018. A typology of livestock systems was constructed using of a PCA and AHC. The results show three groups. G1 retains 68% of breeders with small farms, combining polyculture with dairy cattle breeding; G2, 30% of breeders, the farm is medium-sized and the productive orientation is mixed farming and dairy cattle breeding; G3, made up of large grain farmers and mixed cattle breeders (milk/meat). The cattle breeds exploited are Red Holstein and Montbeliard, 74% dominant. The origin of innovation relating to breeding practices comes mainly from local socio_x0002_technical networks, whereas formal extension by public services is ineffective (0.64 %). It appears that group1 occupies the first position in terms of acquiring information on innovations, followed by G2 and 3. Socio-technical networks operate from 27 to 33% in the 3 groups. The veterinarian contributes 25% in G1 and 2; at 41% in G3.
Based on survey data of 319 rain-fed farmers in Al-Hasakeh, Syria, this study analyses rain-fed farmers’ risk attitudes and farmers’ perceptions of risk and risk management. Furthermore, it analyzes, using multiple regression analysis, the relationship between socio-economic characteristics and farmers’ risk attitudes. The results demonstrate that precipitation shortage was the most important risk source that threaten farmers in both zones. Moreover, risks of diseases and pests and natural disasters were highly perceived by farmers in zone 1. Farmers in zone 2 were more concerned about fire damages and lack of government support. The financial strategy related to the producing at lowest possible cost is perceived as an important strategy to manage risk by farmers in both zones. Spraying for diseases and pests and liquidity are perceived as the most effective risk management strategies by farmers in zone 1, whereas farmers in zone 2 considered liquidity and choose good quality materials as an important strategy. The results also show that some farm and farmers’ characteristics (e.g. age, experience, education, household size, farm size, family labour, extension contact, off-farm work and Co-op Member) significantly impact the risk attitudes of the farmers in both zones.
Like in all Mediterranean countries, Table olive farming has an important tradition and production potential in western Turkey, and thus it is critical to assess the risk sources and risk management strategies that farmers perceive. This study identifies perceptions of risk sources and managements strategies in the region, clarifying their relative importance, as farmers perceive them, using a survey conducted among 121 selected purposefully farmers. Sociodemographics of farmers and households were identified using basic descriptive statistics, such as arithmetic means and percentages. According to factor loadings, financial and marketing risk sources are most prominent among farmers, and human-induced and production technology issues represent the most important risk management strategies. In table olive production, it will be beneficial to develop strategies such as increasing the number of trees, improving agricultural activities, increasing the awareness level of farmers on issues such as climate change and the use of new technologies.
European Administration has spent years trying to shift traffic from the road to the sea, using intermodality in order to achieve a modal rebalancing. Meanwhile we keep waiting. This study analyses new approaches that strengthen the modal shift, rather than focusing simply on the reduction of externalities. A possible option is to redefine ports, conceptualising them as redistribution and coordination centers and not only as areas of cargo exchange. The present article analyses this problem by attempting to promote intermodality (truck and short sea shipping) for the transport of highly perishable products (vegetables) exported from southeast Spain, which is the leading supplier to Europe. It is analysed the location of coordination centers between customer-provider by applying a p-median multicriteria model, adapted to the transport of perishables. This scheme avoids bias in decision-making processes.
This article analyses several possibilities to valorize prickly pear farming in Algeria, a context dominated by semi-arid ecosystems. It uses sociotechnical and evolutionary approaches in order to understand the new dynamics happening within this sector. Based on field surveys and literature review, this study shows that the production and processing of prickly pear by-products present a high potential, but remains largely under-exploited. Production is mostly artisanal, collection uses traditional practices and marketing is dominated by unstructured and informal channels. The development of processing activities is fairly recent and its dynamic reflects the high interest for this emerging sector by adopting certain practices already observed elsewhere. Finally, an important constraint is foreign market entry. Due to the partial failure of producer’s commercial export strategies’, local outlets remain dominant.
Agriculture, especially cereal production, is one of the few sectors in which Serbia has a significant comparative advantage. Due to the policy of approaching the EU, almost all grain exports are placed in a few EU countries, which are not end-users but are also significant producers and resellers on the world market. This increases the risk of external shocks and reduces earnings from exports, while end importers pay a higher price. This research aims to determine the complementarity between Serbia’s exports of cereals and the import demand of the Middle East and North Africa (MENA) countries. For these purposes, the markets analysis was conducted (including food safety indicators), and two different import-export matching coefficients were applied. Serbia’s competitiveness in relation to the current suppliers of MENA for each type of cereals was assessed. The results showed high trade complementarity in terms of corn and wheat with all countries in the region, while for a few of them, it was barley. The trade routes for each type of cereal specified in this research are guidelines for engaging the government in export promotion.
The present work aims to analyze the performance of the Tunisian olive oil exports compared to its main competitors (Spain, Italy, Greece, Turkey and Portugal) during the last fifteen years, on the European market and four potential markets: the United States, Canada, Japan and Brazil using the Shift Share Analysis, in order to identify the main sources of change. The period 2011-2015 was a boom period for Tunisia in all studied markets. The gain in Tunisian competitiveness on the new markets (Canada, Japan and Brazil) is related to the growth of their global imports and the competitiveness of Tunisian exports reinforced by the superior quality of Tunisian extra virgin olive oil and the recourse to packaged oil. The results indicate that the maintenance of a sustainable international competitiveness of Tunisia on the olive oil market depends on its domestic production and that of its European competitors, to which is added recently the Turkish competition, policies and trade agreements that must be negotiated and requires the improvement of its non-price competitiveness.
The Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) represent a commitment to sustainability through innovation, sustainable economic growth and the diversification of economic activities. The social economy and the revaluation of rural heritage play a fundamental role in implementing and progressing towards these goals, especially in agri-food cooperatives. In the case of the Spanish olive oil industry, a substantial percentage of the business in olive oil producing areas revolves around the social economy: 70% of the olive oil produced in Spain is made by cooperatives. For these cooperatives, the implementation of the SDGs offers them a potential tool for sustainable development, diversification and the economic growth of their businesses. This article focuses on analysing the relative importance of the SDGs in the olive oil cooperative sector in Andalusia, using the Qualitative Comparative Analysis (QCA) technique and applying the fuzzy-set approach (fsQCA) to the tenets of the SDGs. Lastly, causal models have been established, the practical implications of which centre on the implementation and development of the SDGs as a means of achieving the sustainable economic growth of these enterprises. The main findings of this study suggest that the sustainable development goals on which the cooperative societies analyzed are focused, in addition to producing olive oil, promote values linked to food security, sustainability, the showcasing of heritage, and gender equality.
Organic agriculture (OA) is an ecological, economic and social system that has been in the spotlight to replace and reduce the adverse consequences of conventional agriculture (CA) and achieve sustainable agriculture. The future of OA depends heavily on the knowledge of producers. Accordingly, the current research is based on the Borich model and a survey method using a questionnaire, to examine the existing knowledge and needed by Damavand gardeners to produce organic apples. Thus, using Cochran’s formula, a sample of 158 gardeners were selected and interviewed by simple random sampling method. The results showed that in the planting stage, most of the respondents had very poor and weak level of knowledge, in the growing stage and the harvest the less than needed average level of knowledge to produce organic apples. However, this need decreases with increasing issues such as level of education, use of information resources, level of cultivation and work experience. Finally, based on the Borich model, priority educational issues were identified to bridge the knowledge gap in order to produce organic apples in the planting, growing and harvesting stages.
This paper tries to highlight the territorial development in the governorates of South East Tunisia on the border with Libya. Our main objective is to show the existence of a direct relationship between regional diparity and work in informal trade.This work proposes to aggregate a set of regional development indicators of each delegation in order to draw up a typology of the delegations as well as to calculate a territorial development index for each delegation and to discern any failures hindering their development. Also, this analysis addresses the subject of informal trade in southeastern of Tunisia. Following this, a survey will be made with the informal trade actors to analyze their situations and finally an analysis of the state intervention as well as recommendations will be proposed. Our work has shown that regional and local disparity is one of the causes of informal trade in the southeast. As well as the workshops, that we organized confirmed that most of the players in the informal trade are unemployed young people. Here, there are also people who are currently working and who a fixed income, but they are informal traders.
Interactive innovation is the innovation process that is co-produced by the interaction of actors, such as farmers, land managers, researchers, policy makers and consumers. It connotes complex and socio scientific problems that utilize participatory methodologies to bring in diverse perspectives of stakeholders, who have control over the development and decision-making process. Most failure or information absence come from insufficient communication transfer, which can result in conflicts between stakeholders, especially in projects with multi actor partnership and multidisciplinary stakeholders. Rural innovation is addressed by measuring stakeholder interactions that take place in the project. By identifying the risks in the network and the stakeholders associated to the risks, we find the underlying cause of the problem in two case studies in Spain. Results reveal that lack of communication among internal stakeholders was the main threat in both projects. Recommended action plans included establishing an effective communication strategy, establishing a well-defined terminology to avoid miscommunication among internal stakeholders and taking into account ethical and cultural differences among stakeholders to avoid mistrust. The risk analysis provides stakeholders with a holistic view over the project in knowing the location of the resources and where the problem lies. This way stakeholders can scrape out the wound.
The most remarkable technology brought to dairy farms by the digital transformation in agriculture is undoubtedly robotic milking systems (RMS). Knowing the economic impact of this technology is essential for farmers to adopt. For this purpose, in the study; a simulation model was created that gives possible economic analysis results as a result of the use of RMS by using the current economic analysis results of dairy farms. For the economic analysis of dairy farms, data obtained from face-to-face surveys from 148 dairy farms were used. Assumptions used in the simulation model for comparing RMS and conventional milking systems (CMS) were 8.66% increase in milk yield, 58.46% increase in investment costs, 36.66% increase in energy consumption, 1.33% increase in feed costs and 27.84% decrease in labor input. The economic analysis of the dairy farms was made again with these new input and output values obtained. While the simulation results show that the use of RMS is a preferable investment that increases profitability for 10-60 head and 121 + head groups; it shows that it will be an investment that negatively affects profitability for the 61-120 head group. The simulation model was used by taking the average values of the data belonging to the dairy farm groups. A dairy farmer considering an RMS investment can be able to obtain a result specific to his farm if he combines the simulation model with his own economic analysis results.
Dans sa nouveauté, la politique laitière oblige les laiteries, conventionnées préalablement avec l’Etat, à proposer aux producteurs et collecteurs de lait cru des contrats formels et écrits qui doivent, en pratique, contribuer à résoudre ou à limiter les multiples défaillances du marché. De façon exhaustive, il sera question, dans cet article, en mobilisant les outils d’analyse des théories des contrats et des coûts de transaction, d’analyser la nature de ces contrats formels qui lient les laiteries à leurs fournisseurs de lait cru. Cet examen éclairera les pratiques contractuelles dans un processus de coordination verticale d’une filière en dynamique propulsée par les différents soutiens et primes de l’Etat. Ce cas d’étude est original dans la mesure où la relation contractuelle est imposée par l’Etat comme condition sine qua non d’obtention de ces primes et subventions. Il n’est donc pas étonnant que les clauses soient appliquées de façons incomplètes et contournées lorsque les rapports deviennent par trop inégalitaires. Les relations informelles participent à la solution de difficultés rencontrées dans la pratique. Ces contrats n’en sont pas moins des outils de structuration et de modernisation de la filière lait.
This is a rather unique book in more ways than one. For, on the one hand it updates so much information regarding scientific, research, technological development and innovation institutions and their activities in the Arab countries, which, incidentally, lag behind many other countries with similar income levels in terms of research publications and industrial patents. However, on the other hand, and unlike so many other books of its genre, it lends a good deal of attention to crucial issues that impede the region’s progress in various domains of science technology and innovation, including the need to invigorate higher education and improve gender parity within concerned institutions and policy making bodies.Having established the policy groundwork upon which scientific, technological and innovation activities are based, the book delves into detailed analysis they have undertaken with particular attention to emerging areas, including artificial intelligence, new materials, biotechnology and genetic engineering.At the very outset, the book highlights the importance of inclusive and sustainable socioeconomic development, which requires the adoption of sound policies all around, with particular attention to science, technology and innovation as well as the achievement of basic needs for all citizens with water and food security at the very forefront.As to food security the book’s authors estimate that the Arab food gap expanded from $18 billion in 2005 to about $29 billion in 2010 and $34 billion in 2014. This is due to factors that include population growth estimated at around 1.92% per year against 1.11% for the world at large. Additionally, the Arab countries face continuous deterioration in natural resources, with frequent droughts, rising temperatures, and seawater infiltration of groundwater systems. Political turmoil and civil strife in many Arab countries over the past ten years and the resulting rural migration into urban areas are also considered as contributingto diminished food security.With regard to water security, they indicate that the average annual per capita freshwater supply in 22 Arab countries declined over the past ten years, from around 990 to less than 800 cubic meters, which incidentally is about one tenth of the world’s average. If Mauritania, Iraq, Sudan and Lebanon are excluded, the average annual per capita freshwater rate drops to less than 500 cubic meters per year, and in 9 countries it is now below 200 cubic meters, which means that about 40% of the Arab population already lives in conditions of absolute water poverty.The book rightly acknowledges that recent years witnessed the launch of initiatives at the regional and local levels aimed at improving water availability for a variety of uses.An Arab Ministerial Council for Water established by the League of Arab States in 2008 issuing a Water Security Strategy for the Arab Region covering the years 2010-2030. Additionally, a unified water strategy was launched by the GCC covering the years 2016-2035. However, they also remark that to achieve lasting water security would require urgent and comprehensive interventions through national water strategies and vigorous regional cooperation targeting the acquisition of related scientific and technological knowledge as well as effective tools. Only then would it be possible to attain integrated resource management as well as the adoption of rational groundwater extraction, wastewater management and improved irrigation systems within the agricultural sector.
Education in the Arab countries
The book takes a look at education in the Arab countries and arrives at the conclusion that these countries are outperformed by many others around the world and that there is a strong need to reform and improve the quality of education in general and that regarding earlier stages of education, in particular. Thus, the authors quote findings of the 2018 exercise conducted by the Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) aimed at examining and ranking educational performance across several countries around the world, namely, the Programme for International Student’s Assessment (PISA). The fact that according to this exercise six Arab countries covered, namely Jordan, Lebanon, Morocco, Qatar, Saudi Arabia and the United Arab Emirates, generally known for relatively well-developed educational systems ranked below average scores for OECD countries as well as their closest neighbours, namely, Cyprus, Israel, Turkey and Malta for reading, science and maths.With special reference to higher education, the authors underline the fact that the Arab region, like so many others, witnessed a deluge of private higher educational establishments over the past two decades. In many ways, and particularly with regard to the proliferation of profit-seeking institutions of higher education, an issue facing many Arab countries now is how to ascertain that private ventures maintain standards that ensure quality outcomes, furthering moves towards inclusive and sustainable development. It makes sense that only limited progress may be made by higher educational systems, when previous educationalstages suffer serious discrepancies.Overall, many Arab countries suffer a lack of educational opportunities within their higher education systems, while some continue to witness lack of demand for higher education in the first place. Reasons for this latter observation is inadequate enrolment in secondary education and the narrow prospects that secondary education offers its entrants, compared to developed and some developing countries. Available data indicate a disruption in the distribution of students and graduates across various specializations, reaching critical proportions in disciplines that are intended to train educators in general, which threatens even further deterioration in the quality of within various stages education. The same is true in view of the small number of specialists holding a PhD in variousfields, while it is on their shoulders that the burden for enhancing the quality of education and research activities often rests.The authors point out that, it would simply be impossible to overcome the obstacles facing inclusive and sustainable development, which requires the generation and adaptation of knowledge in a wide spectrum of specialisations based on graduate programs that lack meaningful research content. The authors furthermore pose the goal that enrolment rates for postgraduate studies that include conducting scientific research within disciplines linked to attaining sustainable development goals should always exceed 20% of the total of the population of higher education students. Additionally, realising knowledge-based economiesrequires critical masses of higher competencies in all fields of science and technology, with particular accent on specialists in branches of information and communications technologies. The percentage of PhD holders in many developed countries represents an average of 1.3% of all age groups, while enrolment rates in all stages of higher education exceed 50%, around 10% of whom are postgraduate, with at least 2-3% doctoral candidates, actively engaged in basic and applied research within various branches of knowledge. On that basis, the authors call upon policy makers in the Arab countries to attain similar standards inorder to effectively attain their sustainable goals and create the knowledge economies and societies they all seem anxious to achieve.
Human and financial resources dedicated to research and development activities
In relation to human and financial resources dedicated to R&D activities in the Arab countries, the book underscores the fact that both these resources are generally below the world’s average. Several tables with most recent figures clearly indicate that resourcesdedicated to R&D activities in the Arab countries fall below what some of their closestneighbours, namely Cyprus, Iran, Israel, Malta and Turkey have managed to dedicate overthe recent past. Thus, the average number of researchers per million of the population with-in the Arab countries is around 770, while the corresponding figure for their five closestneighbouring countries, namely Cyprus, Iran, Israel, Malta and Turkey, exceeds 2,700,per million. In effect, the Arab countries’ average is a little over half the world’s average,which amounts to around 1,480 per million. The proportion of human resources dedicatedto R&D in some Arab countries with substantial incomes, such as Oman and Iraq, fallsmuch lower, down to 16 and 7%, respectively, of the world’s average. An even more nega-tive picture is observed in relation to numbers of technicians per million of the populationin the Arab countries, with the Arab average close to one fifth of their abovementionedneighbours’ average, and around 12% of the corresponding figure for the OECD countries.With regard to funding R&D, and despite increased R&D spending by several Arabcountries, average spending by the entire group of Arab countries taken altogether is put at0.46% of their GDP values. This is considerably less than what is allocated by their clos-est neighbours, which is estimated at around 1.4% of GDP. Additionally, while no recentfigures are available for R&D expenditure for the entire world or specific country groups,figures going back to the period 2005-2014 put average R&D spending for the entire worldat 2 of their collective GDP values.Government funding accounts for an average of around 60% of R&D expenditure in theArab countries. However, wide variation in such spending is observed between one countryand another. Thus, public resources constitute nearly 100% in some countries, such as Iraq,while they go as low as 25% in the case of Morocco, for instance. Higher education institu-tions and business enterprises provide comparable but rather small average percentages ofR&D expenditure in the Arab countries taken altogether.In relation to research output, the book finds that both the volume and quality of researchpublications by the Arab countries as monitored by a specialised database were inferiorto three of their closest neighbours, namely Iran, Israel and Turkey. Thus, while the Arabcountries’ rankings fell below that of Egypt’s, which significantly ranked 39th worldwide,those of their three neighbours exceeded the 25th rank.With regard to promoting innovation in general, the book relates that Arab strategiesaimed at promoting innovation in enterprises as well as in other domains appear to lackfocus on tackling some of the most acute development challenges, such as creation of wide-spread employment and poverty reduction. Indeed, several initiatives intended to promoteinnovation appear to offer opportunities for multinational technology firms to establishnational and regional offices, with benefits channelled towards elite segments of society.Little is done in order to resolve long-standing problems facing sectors in dire need forinnovative inputs, including agriculture, which employs the vast majority of impoverishedpopulations in Arab countries such as Iraq, Sudan, Morocco, among others.
Promoting a science-friendly culture in the Arab countries
The book is one of very few that seems to have taken active interest in a report publishedby the Wellcome Foundation in 2018, intended to underscore the need to pay greater at-tention to creating a culture conducive to science, technology and innovation. The Well-come Foundation’s report included the results of an opinion survey aimed at measuringthe confidence that populations in quite a few countries had in science and scientists. Thereport also attempted to gauge scientific knowledge possessed by respondents as well astheir position when contradictions arise between religious beliefs and scientific findings.The results of the survey present a rather unflattering view of scientific culture in the Arabcountries. Thus, smaller percentages of respondents from the Arab countries appeared toknow much about science, or attempt to gain scientific information. Smaller percentagesof respondents had trust in scientists or thought that scientists benefited them. Additionally,some stark differences of opinion were manifested with regard to possible contradictionsbetween religious beliefs and scientific knowledge. Incidentally, the latter issue was notpresented within opinion surveys undertaken in all of the Gulf Arab countries, with theexception of the United Arab Emirates.With the need for promoting a science-friendly culture in mind the authors call for moreeffective roles by the media in general and that disseminated by science and technologyinstitutions in particular. Both the public and specialised media will have to exercise roleson a number of fronts, uppermost among which is the need to highlight and investigate is-sues relevant to human development that are directly linked to scientific and technologicalinputs as well as support endogenous scientific research and technological activities as wellas promoting STI cooperation, both regionally and internationally.Among issues that would drastically help in promoting a viable science-friendly culturewithin Arab societies, the authors underscore the importance of using the Arabic language ineducating youth in various scientific domains while improving their skills in languages thatconstitute main vehicles for the exchange of scientific and technological information. Withthis in mind, digital media are expected to play prominent roles, especially is guided by astuteinitiatives that guard linguistic values while disseminating reliable and useful knowledge.
No less important for promoting better research standards in disseminating a scientificculture and moving towards knowledge societies are issues linked to women’s participationin the creation and implementation of scientific and technological knowledge and stimulat-ing innovation. This as the authors state is especially important in societies where femaleshave suffered marginalization through the ages, while they have in several Arab countriesassumed notable improvements in relation to enrolment in higher education.As the authors emphasise, formulating and implementing regional and national strategyto enhance women’s participation in scientific innovative and technological projects, and topromote fresh thinking with regard to attaining inclusive and sustainable goals.In order to achieve tangible results within a reasonable length of time, the book calls forchanging established norms with regard to women’s participation in scientific, research,technological advancement and higher education must begin with reconstructing prevailingstereotypes concerning females and their roles within society. Moreover, while changingestablished norms may not take place overnight, allowing current patterns of discrimina-tion against women occupying top positions in academic as well as research establishmentsto continue unabated would undermine efforts aimed at achieving tangible sustainable de-velopment goals.
Promoting Arab and international cooperation
The book calls for intensive cooperation between higher education policy-makers andpractitioners in the Arab countries as an urgent necessity. Exchanging experiences mayconstitute one aspect of such cooperation while sharing resources and expertise would beanother area of immense promise.Additionally, the book’s authors adopt views that strongly favour continued and improvedcooperation between Arab universities and their counterparts around the world. Such coop-eration ought to allow intensive training of qualified graduates, enhancing their countries’abilities to meet a global future fraught with challenges on many fronts.For such cooperation to produce viable outcomes, alliances and partnerships are neededwith particular emphasis on shared access to resourceful regional and international net-works on the Internet, so that the benefits of available educational courses and auxiliarymaterial are spread as widely as possible.Concluding remarksOne of the main theses of the book relates to the Arab countries’ inadequate focus on STIcapacity building with view to tackling strategic challenges, provide employment for theArab countries’ youthful populations and alleviate poverty. This is claimed as main reasonfor conflicts, political turmoil and poor economic performance that has gone on for too long.As the authors remark, creating viable STI capabilities may not proceed in the shadowof prevailing rentier systems, that engender limited incentives for the masses; while theimport of the latest STI equipment and expertise is prioritised, instead of developing thenecessary national capabilities.On the other hand, the authors stress that sound policies, judicious implementation strat-egies, as well as an atmosphere that allows academic freedom, open expression and freedebate ought to allow Arab STI systems to upgrade, and effectively contribute to inclusiveand sustainable development.
The agreement has been blown
This is the story of a missed opportunity. Since the end of February 2022, the war inUkraine and the consequent sharp rift between Russia and the Western community hasabruptly interrupted high-level diplomatic efforts aimed at creating the preconditions fora gradual solution to the 11-years long armed conflict in Syria.The Mediterranean country is devastated by a war that has killed at least half a millionpeople and pushed more than half of the twenty million Syrians to flee their homes, somemillions in other Syrian regions, millions more abroad, scattered in the Middle East andbeyond. According to the UN, more than 90% of Syrians live in a state of poverty.At the beginning of 2022 the two global powers involved in the conflict, the UnitedStates and Russia, were painstakingly reaching a political compromise to unblock theinternational impasse on the question of a gradual return of refugees towards areas undergovernmental control. According to the sources, this return should have been entirelyvoluntary, the refugees’ civil and political rights should have been protected during andafter their return, as well as their socio-economic prospects should have been guaranteedin the short, mid and long term.In view of a possible future return of Syrian refugees in governmental areas, in January2022 advanced contacts were underway between the United States and Russia to reacha framework agreement allowing the beginning of early recovery-labeled humanitarianprojects aimed at restoring essential services and basic structures in such areas.
A fragmented territory
The central government of Damascus is represented by President Bashar al-Asad, inpower since 2000 and last year re-elected for his fourth term until 2028. Asad’s powerhas been decisively supported for decades by both Russia and Iran.This alliance controls large portions of the national territory: the Damascus-Aleppourban backbone, passing through the main capitals of Daraa, Homs, Hama; the Mediter-ranean coastal region, where Russia has strengthened its historical presence in the East-ern Mediterranean; part of the steppe area between the Euphrates and the Palmyra oasis.Eastern Syria is controlled by a coalition of Kurdish and Arab forces led by the KurdishWorkers’ Party (PKK), hostile to Turkey and supported by the United States as part of theglobal anti-Isis coalition.The jihadist insurrection, formally declared defeated in March 2019, continues to oper-ate and proselytize, carrying out hit-and-run attacks increasingly frequent along the twobanks of the Euphrates. In the north-west around Aleppo and in a part of the north-east,Turkey and local forces have controlled much of the territory for years.
The deadlock and the official position of the EU
Seen from this rugged and fragmented terrain, the conflict in Syria has appeared foryears and still today without any prospects for a solution. Since 2012, the UN has helda table of mediation between the Damascus government and exiled oppositions. Despitethe efforts of a series of high-level UN officials, the UN envoys have few tools to lever-age the parties involved in the conflict. Since 2018, the position of UN special envoy forSyria has been held by the experienced Norwegian diplomat Geir Pedersen, who tries tokeep alive the only negotiating forum formally still active: the inter-Syrian Constitution-al Committee.This inter-Syrian body, composed of 150 members (50 pro-government, 50 pro-exiledoppositions, 50 representatives of the ‘civil society’) was founded back in 2019 afterRussia took the helm of the international diplomatic initiative on Syria with the consen-sus of the United States.It should be noted that 2015 UN Security Council resolution n. 2254, which providedfor the gradual achievement of a political solution to the armed conflict, still remainsthe main regulatory and diplomatic reference for most of the international and regionalactors involved in the Syrian crisis.According to UN resolution n.2254, the constitutional committee should have beenformed at the end (and not at the beginning) of the initial post-armed conflict period char-acterized by a nationwide armed truce. Nowadays, even after eight subsequent Constitu-tional Committees meetings in Geneva, the war still rages over large Syrian territories.After almost three years of unsuccessful UN mediated negotiations, it became clearthat the Moscow-led initiative, embodied by the Constitutional Committee, aims to gaintime without helping to create, either from above or from below, the conditions for agradual and political solution to the conflict.This impasse favors not only Russia but all the other forces that, inside and outsideSyria, have been betting for years on territorial division and on the exploitation, in ashort-term perspective, of the resources of the territory in the center of the Middle East.The European Union, which instead seems interested in breaking this deadlock, re-mains anchored to its political line, crystallized on the positions of the first years of theSyrian crisis: no intervention for the reconstruction of Syria before the start of a politicaltransition in the country. As if to say, Brussels does not intend to provide political legiti-macy to the Asad government by investing in the reconstruction of the local and strategicinfrastructures of the Mediterranean country.
The missed opportunity
In light of this stalemate, diplomats and officials of European development countries’cooperation agencies have pushed for a medium-term compromise between the partiesinvolved to start early recovery projects in the areas under government control. Theagreement provided that the UN refugee agency (UNHCR), which has always kept itschannels open with Damascus, would offer formal and logistical coverage to the actionsupported by Russia, the United States and by the European Union.The launch of these projects would have sent signals of openness to Damascus and itsRussian partner. In exchange, Moscow would have ensured periodic approval of the UNresolution to keep open the cross-border channel of humanitarian aid from Turkey to ar-eas of the north-west, out of government control and under Turkish influence.This would have been a tactical, not necessarily strategic, exchange between Washing-ton and Moscow. In fact, the negotiations did not concern the political and institutionalfuture of Syria, nor were they explicitly aimed at ending the war and starting peace.The steps forward made between 2021 and the beginning of 2022 were apparently min-imal, yet they could have constituted the first slab of a floor to be built to generate trustbetween the parties, inside and outside Syria.The Russian military invasion of Ukraine and the stance taken by the United States andits international allies have had inevitable repercussions, including on the parable of thefailure to agree on early recovery in Syria. The Syrian events that followed the Russianinvasion of Ukraine adamantly showed the fragility of the entente between Moscow andWashington.Since March, Moscow has left more room for Iran to expand into central Syria and thesouth-western regions, troubling US interests. Starting from April, Washington strength-ened its positions in the Northeast, and so did Russia. Since April, Turkey has obtainedmore room for maneuver to intensify attacks against the PKK in Syria and neighboringIraq. In May, the United States decided to lift some trade sanctions on Syrian partners inthe north-east and north-west, effectively deepening the commercial, social and politicalfragmentation between Syrian regions divided by military trenches. Again, in May Rus-sia has announced that it does not intend to vote in favor, in the Security Council, for theresolution that extends the green light for cross-border humanitarian aid from Turkey tothe Idlib region.In the face of these politico-military developments, at the April Brussels internationalconference on Syria and the region, 75% of the promised funds came from the EuropeanUnion and from European donors. This constitutes an expression of Euro-Mediterraneaninterests once again defeated by a trajectory on a global scale based on short term mili-tary and political confrontation.
The vortex of the financial crisis that struck European countries did not impact them as it has primarily affected the Mediterranean periphery. Instead, Greece was the prominent victim, both in terms of duration and size of crisis, with radical changes implemented. The present study explores the determinants of administrative and organizational amendments in the general rural administration during the economic crisis. Data were gathered through a qualitative survey with public officers and stakeholders and were gauged through a Delphi policy framework. The empirical study focuses on implementing crisis management and change management practices in the public sector. The results indicated that public administration was neither prepared to confront the crisis nor the changes that followed. On the other hand, stakeholders claim that despite all the changes that have occurred, the bureaucracy was unaffected and that there is a need for public services to be enhanced. The lessons derived suggest more profound shifts in the administrative practice, culture, implementation of organizational knowledge and tools to deal with crises and changes combined with organizational learning.
Women contribute decisively to the economy and have an important participation in agricultural exploitation in the world, providing their labor. But if they had better access to technology and training in a more equitable way, they could contribute much more. In effect, the rapid technological changes that have occurred in the sector pose an even greater challenge to achieve equalizing the role of women to that of men in the agri-food sector. The limitation of the female gender to training and empowerment prevents them from taking advantage of the technology that are contributing to the achievement of a world free of hunger and malnutrition, which is one of the sustainable development goals (SDG). Therefore, this work analyzes the world situation in terms of training and gender gaps to see if these elements affect the achievement of four of the sustainable development goals (SDG 2, 4, 5 10) in 87 countries. The results of the multiple linear regression show the existence of a positive relationship between these elements is demonstrated. Then, as a real example, Spain is chosen as a country reference and analyzed in terms of training by gender, digital gender gap and labor gap. Finally, some advice and recommendations that allow the achievement of the inclusion of women in the improvement of the countries are suggested.
This paper deals with the efficiency level of cereal-dairy sheep production systems in the Mediterranean Basin. It studies them in the Protected Designation of Origin “Manchego Cheese”, located in Castilla-La Mancha (Spain). Previous studies have alerted to the low productivity levels in these farms, suggesting conducting an efficiency analysis. This work evaluates technological levels by means of synthetic indexes. Two different groups were defined. Technical efficiency was estimated using Data Envelopment Analysis with metafrontier models. The higher the technological level, the higher the efficiency level. Low technology farms could increase their production at least around 23% using the technologies of the high-technology group. Thus, it could be wise to apply new technologies, as new feeding techniques, and the use of troughs of cement, dungheaps, flushing and selective breeding. Increase farm size is a way to implement these technologies. Special attention to managerial functions, mainly organisation and planning, is also advisable. The government must improve the agricultural policies. These actions could increase efficiency, resiliency and sustainability of the farms. Keywords: dairy sheep production systems, data envelopment
This study aims to identify and analyze the major determinants that affect the adoption choice, rate and intensity of water-saving irrigation technologies (sprinkler and drip irrigation techniques) available in the western part of the irrigated perimeter of Mitidja Plain, Algeria. A sample of 136 farmers (28.75%) was randomly selected and surveyed using a structured questionnaire. Three econometric models were used, namely the Logit, Tobit and Poisson regression models. The main findings of the resulted models indicated that capital constraints (credit access, investment costs and subsidies) along with some human capital aspects (age, educational level) and water extraction cost, are the main determinants expected to influence the WSIT adoption choice, rate and intensity in the study area. These results will help to prioritize the factors that affect adoption decisions and provide insights for improving the crop and water productivity.
In 2011, Tunisia went through a revolution which transformed its modern history. Currently, the country is experiencing a moment of transition in which it faces problems, both on a social and economic level. The region Kroumerie-Mogods, in the northwest, includes the three Governorates of Jendouba, Beja and Bizerte, is strongly affected by past economic policies. Despite having great potential in terms of both natural resources and economic opportunities, the local population appears to be among the poorest in the country, suffering from high level of unemployment, widespread poverty and substantial inequalities. In this context, a Development Cooperation project was implemented with the aim of creating new employment opportunities, especially for young people and women, through the enhancement of the territory and its agricultural products with the support of new entrepreneurial initiatives. Principal Component Analysis and Logit model were used to analyse the Self-Efficacy (SE) of young aspiring entrepreneurs and to evaluate its effects on the promotion of personal entrepreneurial projects. The study shows that past involvement in business key activities, as commercial experiences, social commitments and sustainable waste management, represent a decisive element for the promotion of personal business projects in agri-food sector.
L’objectif de cette étude est d’analyser les stratégies individuelles et les déterminants d’adaptation au changement climatique (CC) des irrigants dans le sud-est Tunisien. Un questionnaire d’enquête a été administré à 157 chefs d’exploitations choisis au hasard dans la zone de Gabès-nord prise comme zone d’étude, et des statistiques descriptives et un modèle logistique multinomial ont été utilisés pour analyser les données collectées auprès des irrigants. La variabilité climatique ressentie par les irrigants est expliquée par une baisse des précipitations et par l’augmentation de la température. Pour y faire face, diverses pratiques et mesures d’adaptation ont été développées dans la zone d’étude. Par ordre de priorité l’économie de l’eau d’irrigation est classée au premier rang parmi les treize pratiques identifiées. En terme de stratégies d’adaptation, deux catégories de stratégies sont distinguées. Une première catégorie est dite défensive. Elle vise à adapter les systèmes de production à l’eau disponible sur l’exploitation compte-tenu des puits et forages existants. La deuxième catégorie est dite offensive. Elle consiste à investir pour acquérir de l’eau nécessaire pour maintenir le système de production de l’exploitation. Les principaux déterminants d’adaptation sont donnés par la perception de CC, par la diversification des sources de revenus, par l’âge de l’irrigant, par l’éducation et par l’accès aux services de la vulgarisation.
In Ethiopia, where a large proportion of rural households depend on livestock for livelihood, food security remains a significant concern for large portions of the population. The commercialization of the livestock sector is expected to play an important role in stimulating economic growth, reducing poverty and achieving food security. This study evaluates the effect of livestock market participation on household’s food security and welfare using a nationally representative cross-sectional survey data of rural households in Ethiopia. The endogenous switching regression model which accounts for both the selection and endogeneity bias is employed to examine the effect of livestock market participation. The robustness of the results is checked using propensity score matching. The results indicate that participation in livestock market improved food security and welfare of the participating households. Participation in the market also would have increase food security and welfare of non-participants had they decided to participate in the market. Furthermore, in rural areas where alternative income possibilities are scant, livestock market participation has smoothed food consumption by providing income in times of harvest failure or other shocks striking households. However, building a more sustainable market-oriented production system is critical for the improvement of household food security and welfare.
L’objectif de cette étude est de mettre en lumière empiriquement les enjeux de la dépendance de la filière de blé en Algérie vis-à-vis du marché extérieur, en utilisant des techniques de séries temporelles et de prédiction. L’étude investigue le processus d’ajustement aux déséquilibres des prix afin d’évaluer le fonctionnement de la filière de blé en termes de la production nationale et le secteur de l’importation. L’intervalle de temps pour l’étude s’étale de 1965 jusqu’à 2019 par l’utilisation des données des organisations officielles. Le modèle de correction d’erreur asymétrique est utilisé mettant en évidence les asymétries de réponse de l’offre aux prix. Les principaux résultats du modèle et les prédictions faites à l’horizon 2040 stipulent explicitement que les enjeux auxquels fait face la filière de blé en Algérie sont : une incapacité croissante de satisfaire la demande interne en blé dur, une disparition totale de la production locale de blé tendre et un recours plus exagéré à l’importation de blés. Des implications pour la politique publique sont dégagées en termes de sécurité alimentaire.
Covid-19 had a negative effect economically and socially in Tunisia, as illustrated by the highest mortality rate recorded in Africa in March 2020 and the economic growth rate estimated at -9.3% by the Central Bank of Tunisia in 2020. The main cause of this situation is the quarantine and the sudden halt of several activities resulting in the drop in domestic demand and the loss of Tunisia’s main trading partners. The agricultural sector, and particularly small and family farms, forced to align with the quarantine measures since March 2020, have suffered the full impact of Covid-19. Indeed, the pandemic crisis put a strain on food supply chains: a complex network of interactions involving farmers, agricultural inputs, processing plants, retailers, and others.
Climate change is expected to have serious environmental, economic, and social impacts on arid regions such as Tunisia country. This research uses a “bottom-up” approach, which seeks to gain insights from the farmers themselves based on a farm household in the south-east of Tunisia. Econometric analyses and Main Component analysis was conducted in this research. Finally, probit binary models were estimated to determine the factors influencing adaptation strategies. All actions aimed at improving the resilience of agriculture in Tunisia’s arid regions to climate change, emphasize mainly the strategies adopted by farmers in terms of water management, technical choices and the adopted production systems combined with the experience and local know-how. Others Government policies and national adaptation programs should focus on education facilitate farmers’ access to extension, information and specialized training needed.
In this study, it was aimed to determine the participation tendencies in organic agriculture activities of women living in rural areas of the northwestern part of Turkey. The data were collected from 183 rural women by simple random sampling method. The survey was conducted from March to May 2020. The data were evaluated by descriptive statistics, a participation index score and multiple regression analysis. According to the results of the participation index score, rural women’s participation of in organic farming activities was highest in the fertilizer application stage and the least in the marketing stage. The results of multiple regression analysis showed that there was a statistically significant relationship between the participation level of rural women in organic farming activities and socio-economic characteristics (age, education level, household size, organic farming experience, household income, agricultural land asset and participation in agricultural training programs). As a result, the findings of the study are expected to make significant contributions to rural development, province economy and further emphasizing the importance of rural women in organic farming activities.
Urban consumers´ response to the EU food mountain la- belling: an empirical application in Southern Europe
New Medit, Vol 15, n. 1, (March 2016), pp. 72-80
Jel classification: Q13, Q18, D12
By using beef as a typical mountain product, this paper investigates the role of the mountain origin claim among urban consumers in four Pyrenean bordering regions, in France and Spain, applying a choice experiment. In addition, breed, intrinsically linked to beef mountain systems, is also studied. An Error Components mixed logit model is estimated and attribute non-attendance is analytically derived. Results suggest that the mountain labelling may have a limited impact on consumption, as it is highly non-attended and its Willingness to Pay is low even after control for non-attendance. Nevertheless, preference heterogeneity suggests a feasible niche market in Spain. In contrast, the use of breed as a differentiation claim, not currently used in Spain, could have a more immediate impact on consumers’ choices. The paper finds synergies between mountain labelling and other quality schemes.
Climate change is a global environmental threat to all economic activities, especially the livestock activity. The South of Tunisia, where animal husbandry is a fundamental element of the domestic economy, is more influenced by these negatives effects due to the arid climate. The objective of this study is to identify strategies and levers mitigation and adaptation to climate change developed by breeders on based on available factors. For this purpose, a survey conducted among 73 breeders on the rangelands of El Ouara, in the South of Tunisia. Results emerges that breeders use various adaptation strategies principally, supplementation, integration agriculture-livestock and conduct’s mode through different types such as association. The result of the model reveal that age of breeder, herd size, agricultural area, member of an association, subsidies and well ownerships are the most factors which significantly influence the adaptation choices of breeders to cope to climate change. The results proved too that adaptation to climate change was inhibited by many factors such as luck of workforce labor, lack of water and financial resources as well the degradation of the rangelands.
Food waste creates an increasing concern at the global level and searching methods how to solve food waste is also a significantly increasing. Finding adequate solutions and implementing is only possible through defining the problem. To solve a complicated problem like food waste which interests large population and has different kind of features for each product is a time consuming. At this point, revealing food waste at the different stages is important. The biggest share from the waste is taken by households. This study covers the analyses results of the surveys conducted in 3 big cities in different geographic region in order to identify household food waste’s level in Turkey. Totally 1155 surveys were conducted in Erzurum, ?zmir and Adana in June 2016 and 2017. In addition to food waste, its perception, food purchase and store behaviors of the consumers were investigated. The results show that households wasted about 7.5 tones food during the month surveys carried out. Only 180 families out of 1155 had no food waste and this number is higher in Erzurum. The highest food waste was observed in Adana where it was 823 kg per week while it was 652 kg in Erzurum and 393 kg in ?zmir.
Egypt is considered a net wheat importer, with the Egyptian market being vulnerable to future wheat markets because of the effect future market price discovery can have on the stability of spot prices. This study assesses the relationship between Egyptian wheat spot prices and future wheat prices in Paris (MATIF) and USA (CBOT). Markov switching-vector error correction methods are used to estimate two regimes by splitting the sample into high and low volatility regimes. This study also examines the dynamic conditional correlation between the prices considered using the asymmetric DCC-GARCH. Results suggest a high volatility regime observed, especially during the extreme market events of the food crisis in 2007-08 and 2010 and following the two revolutions in Egypt in 2011 and 2013 and the time of the economic reform in 2016. This leads to an unstable market and negative impacts on consumers’ welfare and food affordability, meaning that futures markets failed to hedge spot wheat market against price volatility. In addition, results from impulse response functions indicate that a 1% shock in futures markets will lead to a positive shock in the wheat spot market, while for the low volatility regime no significant effect.
The Mediterranean diet is considered one of the healthier and most balanced dietary models currently in existence. Different studies suggest that it is environmentally friendly: it combines low greenhouse gas emissions, low demand of soil water and less deforestation. Climate change can be mitigated through what consumers decide to eat. This article addresses the issue of by studying the intention of young consumers to shift their diets towards the Mediterranean Diet to prevent climate change through face interviews, collected in Crete, Greece (N=287). Using the Theory of Planned Behavior, the objective is to identify whether attitudes, subjective norms and perceived behavioral control guide such a behavior. Our findings highlight that young consumers’ perceived behavioral control have the highest influence on the intention, followed by their attitudes. As for the subjective norms, it has no significant impact on the intention
Organic agriculture in Europe is expanding, yet is still in the early stages in less developed areas of Europe. Understanding the factors of converting to organic agriculture is a key component for both policy design and attaining effective support for the organic sector from the government, donors, or the private sector. Therefore, the study attempts to explore the determinant factors of farmers’ intentions to engage in organic farming based on primary data collected through a farm survey in Albania. Results show that subjective norms, perceived behavior control, favorable attitudes toward organic farming conversion, as well as awareness of risk from conventional farming accompanied with information awareness are positively associated with the probability of converting to organic farming. Farmers’ perceptions of EU policy opportunities and attitudes towards environment protection are negatively associated with farmers’ tendency to convert. The study findings call for the use of financial and non-financial policy instruments for supporting conversion to organic farming and increased information on opportunities and costs expected from the integration into the EU single market.