The objective of this paper is to examine the resilience of households to food insecurity and to identify the determinants of this resilience in two study areas: Kairouan and Zaghouan. The study relied on a cross-sectional database collected from 671 smallholder farmers. Multivariate techniques including factor analysis and linear regression models were used to measure resilience and identify its determinants. The results indicate that the levels of vulnerability and resilience are different depending on the specificity of the region. In Zaghouan, 63% of agricultural households are vulnerable and 28% of households are very resilient. On the other hand, 51% of households surveyed are vulnerable in Kairouan and 42% of households are very resilient. The results reveal that the most important determinants of household resilience to food insecurity are income and access to food, ownership of assets, and access to basic services. The “climate change” negatively affect household resilience and should be further investigated in the long term. Interventions must target strategies that address the different levels of resilience reflected by the resilience estimators.