In the region of M’Sila, a steppe zone and characteristic of a dominant agro-pastoral framework, the local olive sector has certainly grown in terms of area expansion, but the information available indicates that its future in terms of performance is dependent on a series of internal and external factors. The aim of this article is to highlight the main explanatory variables by analyzing the strengths and weaknesses of the sector, the opportunities and threats linked to its environment. Two methods are used: the first, SWOT, constitutes a structured diagnostic framework and a universal decision-support tool. The second, the causality analysis, according to the Parmenides EIDOS tool, makes it possible to obtain a hierarchy of relations in the sector based on the opinions of the intervening actors. The data used come from the bibliographic summary of a series of studies and the results of a survey carried out in 2017 in the field. The results obtained show that the internal factors are linked to the characteristics of the farms, to the production systems, and to the surrounding conditions of the value chain. External factors are linked to the dynamics of national and global markets.