Puglia region is the most important producer of organic olives in Italy. The study aims at assessing the economic sustainability of a selected organic olive oil farm by adopting and testing the methodology based on a scientific approach designed by CIHEAM Bari, with the aim of a group of experts from national and international research organisations, used in the Programme “Agricoltura&Qualità of Puglia Region. SWOT-analysis of quality schemes system in Puglia has been drawn. The case study concerns a traditional organic farm producing olive oil, table olives, and almonds in Puglia region. The SWOT analysis highlights that Puglia has not a fully functioning system to ensure the sustainability. However, the results prove the feasibility of the methodological approach to assess the economic sustainability. The farm is economically sustainable and can use the Economic sustainability logo, in addition to the organic and PDO logos. Per hectare, almond is the most profitable crop with higher revenue, the variable costs are higher in table olives and inputs are higher in olives for oil. The growing interest in sustainability is an important opportunity to develop the agri-food sector.